Memory

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course Code
PSYCH 100
Professor
tamararahhal

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Description
Memory Three steps to having a memory: 1) Encoding - 2) storage - 3) retrieval – able to go and retrieve that information Modal model of Memory: Sensory memory  short term (working memory)  long term memory Sensory memory: - a brief persistence of sensory information Types of sensory registers: Iconic memory – where visual information is processed Echoic memory – where auditory information is processed Sperling studies of memory: 1. flash matrix of letters/numbers for 1/20 sec 2. subjects reported what they saw 3. counted pieces of information remembered Results: 1. people could report 4-9 pieces of information 2. but..they could see all of the information How does sensory memory work? - holds sensory information in its raw form so that it can be coded into some understandable means and transferred to short term memory How much information can be registered in sensory memory? - infinite amounts How much information can be processed in sensory memory before it dissipates? - up to nine pieces of information at a time How fast does information dissipate? - very fast, less than three seconds Short Term Memory Easy to enter: attend to item last few attended items are in short term memory Lots of entry paths: last seven encountered items from sensory memory/information from long term memory memory/recycled short term memory information from short term memory Does it exist? Serial position curve: Primacy effect: we typically remember the first few words on the list (long term memory) Recency effect we typically remember the last few words on the list (short term memory) How big is it? – how much information can it hold? The magical 7+ or – 2: we can hold seven plus two or minus two pieces of information in short term memory 7+/- 2 chunks of information How long does stuff stay in short term memory? - About twenty seconds (without rehearsal) Long Term Memory Large in size: infinite Hard to enter: must be attended to and rehearsed/elaborated for some time One entry path: from short term memory only Encoding: How does information get from short term memory to long term memory? We use control processed: 1. Rehearsal – conscious repetition (effortful processing) - rote rehearsal – repeating over and over and over - elaborative rehearsal – elaborate on subject 2. Coding We use other encoding strategies: 1. levels of processing 2. meaning 3. imagery Levels of processing: 1. we can analyze information in many different ways a. shallow processing  deep processing example: more shallow visual encoding – in all capital letters? Acoustic encoding – rhymes with? Semantic encoding – fit in sentence (meaning?) more deep 2. the deeper information is processed, the better your memory for that information wil be. Example: elaborative rehearsal leads to better more than rote rehearsal Meaning: - meaning aids memory! Imagery: - information that can be imaged will be better remembered than information that cannot be imaged Dual coding theory: we can code imagable information two ways – 1) verbally 2) visually Episodic memory – memories that contain specific past experiences or episodes  linked to specific places and times o example: what did you eat for dinner last night?/what did I lecture about last Thursday Semantic memory – general knowledge  not related to specific episodes but rather a composite of several experiences  acquired over time o example: what do we eat for dinner?/what does “psychology” mean? *Explicit memory includes episodic and semantic memory* Explicit memory: memory for information that you can consciously recall and declare  example: learn a list of words  recall these words Testing exp
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