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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences

Intelligence Two general points:  Intelligence is an important, human characteristic Intelligence, by itself, is not enough. Behaviors of intelligent individuals: Problem solving skills  Analytical, logical, able to solve problems Verbal skills  Articulate, reads a lot, good at crosswords Social competence  Outgoing, friendly, or socially awkward Formal definition of intelligence: An individual’s ability to: - understand complex ideas - to adapt effectively to the environment - to learn from experience - to engage in various forms of reasoning - to overcome obstacles by careful thought Practical definition of intelligence: Whatever intelligence tests measure - usually school smarts Single characteristic view: G Factor (general factor): - a primary intelligence factor that underlies all specific mental abilities Points: - found people who score high on one sub-test of intelligence typically score high on all subtests - performance on all these tasks (math, verbal) depends on this primary factor Several components: Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence: - people do not have one general intelligence, but rather multiple intelligence Points: - each is independent of the others - we need to assess/understand all types of intelligence to get the big picture example: The savant syndrome - gifted in one area but in no other areas example: Olympic athletes Types of intelligence: Linguistic - poet Bodily - athlete Logic/math - scientist Musical - singer Spatial - architect Interpersonal - politician Intrapersonal - therapist Naturalist -farmer Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Intelligence falls into three classes: a) analytical intelligence i. ability to think critically, analytically 1. (good students/professors/scientists) b) creative intelligence i. insight, ability to form new ideas 1. (inventors/musicians) c) practical intelligence i. street smarts, solving everyday life problems 1. (business owners/con artists) Emotional Intelligence (vs. Academic Intelligence) A cluster of traits relating to the emotional side of life. Our abilities to perceive, understand and express emotions Four factors: 1. must know one’s own emotions and how to manage them 2. must recognize emotions in others and respond 3. must be able to handle relationships well 4. must be able to motivate oneself, optimistically Measuring Intelligence IQ (Intelligence Quotient): - Alfred Binet: first person to measure intelligence - chronological age: actual age - mental age: average performance level on an intelligence test for someone of a particular age IQ = mental age ---------------- x 100 chron. age average score = 100 9 year old performing as a 9 year old: 9/9 x 100 = 100 11 year old performing as a 9 year old: 9/11 x 100 = 81 7 year old performing as a 9 year old: 9/7 x 100 = 128 Problems: 1. 40 year old performing as a 20 year old: 20/40 x 100 = 50 IQ 2. Tests were mostly verbal Modern Measures: Aptitude tests: used to predict future performances, ability to learn (WAIS, WISC) Achievement tests: used to measure what you have already learned Wechsler Tests of Intelligence:  Wechsler adult intelligence score (WAIS)  Wechsler intelligence score for children (WISC) General components measured by lots of subtests: 1. verbal component 2. performance (non-verbal component) Points: - you get two component scores and one overall score - differences between component scores can illuminate learning disabilities Millers Analogies Test - analogies: measure ability to perceive relationships 5 Components of Creativity 1. expertise 2. imaginative thinking sk
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