cheat sheet

2 Pages

Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course Code

This preview shows 80% of the first page. Sign up to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Activation Synthesis Theory: Hobson’s theory, brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep, stimulates memories lodged in various portions of brain. Addictive Drugs: Drugs produce biological/psychological dependence in user, causing withdrawal; craving for drug.  biologically/psychologically based. Algorithm: Rule, if applied appropriately guarantees solution to problem. Heuristic: Cognitive shortcut may lead to solution not sure (representative/availability heuristic rule). Problem: preparation, production, judgment. Well-defined/ill defined problem. Arrangement problems, Problems of inducing structure, transformation problems. Behavior Modification: Formalized technique for promoting frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing incidence of unwanted ones. Circadian Rhythms: biological processes that occur regularly on approx. 24 hrs cycle. BP, Hormone Production, Body Temp, follow it. Classical Conditioning: Learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with stimulus that naturally brings about that response, substitution. (Ivan Pavlov) Cognitive Learning Theory: Approach to study of learning that focuses on thought processes that underlie learning.  Develop an expectation. Cognitive Map: Mental representation of spatial locations and directions. Conditioned Response: Response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus: Once neutral stimulus that has been paired w/ unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by unconditioned stimulus. Confirmation Bias: Tendency to favor information that supports one’s initial hypotheses and ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions. Creativity: ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways. Divergent Thinking: ability to generate unusual, but appropriate responses to problems/Q’s. Convergent Thinking: ability to produce responses based primarily on knowledge and logic. Cognitive Complexity: preference for intricate and complex stimuli Constructive process: Processes in which memories are influenced by meaning we give to events. Continuous Reinforcement schedule: Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs. Daydreams: Fantasies that people construct while awake. Decay: Loss of info in memory through nonuse. Interference: Phenomenon info in memory disrupts recall of other info. Cue dependent forgetting: forgetting occurs when insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle info. Proactive Interference: Interference in which info learned earlier disrupts recall of newer material. Retroactive: interference in which difficulty in recall of info learned earlier b/c of later exposure to different material. Amnesia: memory loss occurs w/o other mental difficulties. Retrograde amnesia: amnesia memory is lost for events that follow injury. Korsakoff’s syndrome: disease afflicts long term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and tendency to repeat same story. Depressants: Impede nervous system causing neurons to fire more slowly, intoxication. Alcohol, Barbiturates,(Nembutal, Seconal, Phenobarbital, sleep medicine, sense of relaxation). Rohypnol, date rape drug, Discriminative Stimulus: Signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response.  Stimulus generalization also occurs in operant and classical. Dreams for Survival: Suggests dreams permit information that is critical for daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep. Explicit Memory: Intentional/conscious recollection of info. Implicit: Memories of which people are not consciously aware, but can affect subsequent performance and behavior. Priming: Phenomenon, exposure to word/concept later makes it easier to recall related info, even if there is no conscious memory of the word/concept. Flashbulb Memories: Memories centered on specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid as if it was a snapshot of event.  Often inaccurate, memories exceptional more easily retrieved. Source Amnesia: has memory but cannot recall where it was encountered. Extinction: Basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. Fixed Interval Schedule: Schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed; making overall rates of response relatively low (Scalloping Effect). Fixed-Ratio Schedule: Schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. Hallucinogen: Drug capable of producing hallucinations, changes in perceptual process. (Marijuana, ecstasy, LSD, operate on serotonin). Hypnosis: Trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to suggestions of others, do not lose all will. Controlling Pain, Reducing smoking, Treating psychological disorders, Assisting in Law Enforcement, Improving Athletic Performance. Interactions approach: view that language development is produced through combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach. Language: communication of info through symbols arranged according to systematic rules. Grammar: system of rules, determine how thoughts are expressed. Phonology: study of smallest units of speech; phonemes. Syntax: ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences. Semantics rules governing meaning of words and sentences. Babble: meaningless speech like sounds made by children from 3 months – 1 yr. Has critical period. Telegraphic Speech: Sentences in which words not critical to message left out. Overgeneralization: phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when application results in error. Latent Contents of Dreams: Freud, “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects. Latent Learning: Learning in which new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it. Learning theory approach(language development): suggests that language acquisition follows principles of reinforcement and conditioning. Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience. Habituation: Decrease in response to stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of same stimulus. Levels of processing theory: emphasizes degree to which new material is mentally analyzed, depth of exposure to material during initial encounter, more likely to remember. Linguistic-relativity hypothesis: notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world.  Language leads to thought. Long term Potentiation: Certain neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is learned, increase in synapses.  Consolidation: memories become fixed and stable, memory linked to sites where processing occurs. Manifest Content of Dreams Freud, apparent story line of dreams. Means End Analysis: Repeated testing for differences between desired outcome and what currently exists. Subgoals: divide problem into smaller steps, or backtrack. Insight: sudden awareness of relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent. Functional Fixedness: tendency to think of object only in terms of typical use. Mental Set: tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist. Meditation: Learned technique for refocusing attention, brings about an altered state of consciousness.  Ineffability, inability to understand an experience rationally. Memory: Process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information,
More Less
Unlock Document

Only 80% of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.