cheat sheet

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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course Code
PSYCH 100
Professor
B

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Description
Activation Synthesis Theory: Hobson’s theory, brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep, stimulates memories lodged in various portions of brain. Addictive Drugs: Drugs produce biological/psychological dependence in user, causing withdrawal; craving for drug.  biologically/psychologically based. Algorithm: Rule, if applied appropriately guarantees solution to problem. Heuristic: Cognitive shortcut may lead to solution not sure (representative/availability heuristic rule). Problem: preparation, production, judgment. Well-defined/ill defined problem. Arrangement problems, Problems of inducing structure, transformation problems. Behavior Modification: Formalized technique for promoting frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing incidence of unwanted ones. Circadian Rhythms: biological processes that occur regularly on approx. 24 hrs cycle. BP, Hormone Production, Body Temp, follow it. Classical Conditioning: Learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with stimulus that naturally brings about that response, substitution. (Ivan Pavlov) Cognitive Learning Theory: Approach to study of learning that focuses on thought processes that underlie learning.  Develop an expectation. Cognitive Map: Mental representation of spatial locations and directions. Conditioned Response: Response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus: Once neutral stimulus that has been paired w/ unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by unconditioned stimulus. Confirmation Bias: Tendency to favor information that supports one’s initial hypotheses and ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions. Creativity: ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways. Divergent Thinking: ability to generate unusual, but appropriate responses to problems/Q’s. Convergent Thinking: ability to produce responses based primarily on knowledge and logic. Cognitive Complexity: preference for intricate and complex stimuli Constructive process: Processes in which memories are influenced by meaning we give to events. Continuous Reinforcement schedule: Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs. Daydreams: Fantasies that people construct while awake. Decay: Loss of info in memory through nonuse. Interference: Phenomenon info in memory disrupts recall of other info. Cue dependent forgetting: forgetting occurs when insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle info. Proactive Interference: Interference in which info learned earlier disrupts recall of newer material. Retroactive: interference in which difficulty in recall of info learned earlier b/c of later exposure to different material. Amnesia: memory loss occurs w/o other mental difficulties. Retrograde amnesia: amnesia memory is lost for events that follow injury. Korsakoff’s syndrome: disease afflicts long term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and tendency to repeat same story. Depressants: Impede nervous system causing neurons to fire more slowly, intoxication. Alcohol, Barbiturates,(Nembutal, Seconal, Phenobarbital, sleep medicine, sense of relaxation). Rohypnol, date rape drug, Discriminative Stimulus: Signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response.  Stimulus generalization also occurs in operant and classical. Dreams for Survival: Suggests dreams permit information that is critical for daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep. Explicit Memory: Intentional/conscious recollection of info. Implicit: Memories of which people are not consciously aware, but can affect subsequent performance and behavior. Priming: Phenomenon, exposure to word/concept later makes it easier to recall related info, even if there is no conscious memory of the word/concept. Flashbulb Memories: Memories centered on specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid as if it was a snapshot of event.  Often inaccurate, memories exceptional more easily retrieved. Source Amnesia: has memory but cannot recall where it was encountered. Extinction: Basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. Fixed Interval Schedule: Schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed; making overall rates of response relatively low (Scalloping Effect). Fixed-Ratio Schedule: Schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. Hallucinogen: Drug capable of producing hallucinations, changes in perceptual process. (Marijuana, ecstasy, LSD, operate on serotonin). Hypnosis: Trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to suggestions of others, do not lose all will. Controlling Pain, Reducing smoking, Treating psychological disorders, Assisting in Law Enforcement, Improving Athletic Performance. Interactions approach: view that language development is produced through combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach. Language: communication of info through symbols arranged according to systematic rules. Grammar: system of rules, determine how thoughts are expressed. Phonology: study of smallest units of speech; phonemes. Syntax: ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences. Semantics rules governing meaning of words and sentences. Babble: meaningless speech like sounds made by children from 3 months – 1 yr. Has critical period. Telegraphic Speech: Sentences in which words not critical to message left out. Overgeneralization: phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when application results in error. Latent Contents of Dreams: Freud, “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects. Latent Learning: Learning in which new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it. Learning theory approach(language development): suggests that language acquisition follows principles of reinforcement and conditioning. Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience. Habituation: Decrease in response to stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of same stimulus. Levels of processing theory: emphasizes degree to which new material is mentally analyzed, depth of exposure to material during initial encounter, more likely to remember. Linguistic-relativity hypothesis: notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world.  Language leads to thought. Long term Potentiation: Certain neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is learned, increase in synapses.  Consolidation: memories become fixed and stable, memory linked to sites where processing occurs. Manifest Content of Dreams Freud, apparent story line of dreams. Means End Analysis: Repeated testing for differences between desired outcome and what currently exists. Subgoals: divide problem into smaller steps, or backtrack. Insight: sudden awareness of relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent. Functional Fixedness: tendency to think of object only in terms of typical use. Mental Set: tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist. Meditation: Learned technique for refocusing attention, brings about an altered state of consciousness.  Ineffability, inability to understand an experience rationally. Memory: Process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information,
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