What IS Psychology?
SCOPE → what questions are asked → color vision, motivation, phobias, memory,
consciousness, helping behavior, development, personality
POPULATION → who/what is studied → humans, animals → ethics, simpler systems
METHOD OF INQUIRY → how do we study it? case studies/surveys, correlation,
Big Issues –
• conscious vs. unconscious → means to say “you look great” but says “you look fat”
• free will vs. determinism → can someone choose to get themselves out of a depressive state
• individual differences vs. universal → why men prefer younger women and women prefer older
• nature vs. nurture → does heredity play a major role in determining IQ?
• neuroscience perspective → how does the brain/biology affect behavior
• evolutionary perspective → how do unconscious conflicts/drives determine behavior
• behavioral perspective → how do our experiences and environment affect behavior
• cognitive perspective → how does information processing affect thoughts/behavior
• sociocultural perspective → how do behavior/thinking vary across situations/cultures
~ overconfidence → think you know more than you actually do
~ hindsight bias → after you know the outcome of an event, you tend to believe that you
would have predicted it
Why Form A Hypothesis?