Neurotransmitters, Neurons, Drugs

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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course
PSYCH 100
Professor
tamararahhal
Semester
Spring

Description
Neuroscience and Behavior Neurons and Neural Communication ­ neurons/neural impulses ­ neural communication ­ neurotransmitters • dendrite → the “in box”; it receives signals from: ~ sensory structures (like taste buds) ~ other neurons • cell body → basic cell function • axon → the “outbox”; it sends signals to: ~ other neurons ~ effector cells (muscles) • myelin sheath → a fatty substance that encases the axons of some cells → increases the speed of transmission → located on the axon • terminal vesicles (terminals) → stores and eventually releases enzymes called neurotransmitters (NT), which are released into the synapse • synapse → small space between the axons of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell • receptor sites → locations on the dendrite of the next neuron; neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites and the whole process begins anew • action potential → electrochemical reaction → all neurons have a resting state (­70mv) → dendrite is stimulated and positive ions flow into the cell until... → threshold is reached (­65mv) → action potential is triggered (all­or­nothing) → wave moves down the axon → wave reaches the terminal vesicles → neurotransmitters are released into the synapse → neurotransmitters bind with receptors on dendrite of next neuron → process starts in the next cell ~ neurotransmitters can: excite the next neuron or inhibit the next neuron • refractory period → brief period of time when the neuron is unable to fire again an
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