Educational Psychology, Lecture on September 10th
Chapter Three: Cognitive and Language Development
Dendrites receive signals / Axons send and carry on these signals.
Plasticity, the brain is easily adaptable.
Pruning, when unused brain cells are discarded.
Lateralization, how one side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body.
Specialization, how different parts of the brain control different functions.
The Limbic system is the area of the brain that regulated emotion and memory.
Directly connects the lower and higher brain functions.
The brainstem controls life’s basic functions, breathing, heart rate, swolling,
sleep, balance, etc. Divided into three sections:
The cerebellum is connected to the brainstem, and is the center for body
movement and balance.
largest brain component.
develops the slowest.
responsible for reasoning, planning, controlling impulses - may still
develop into early 20s.
multiple parts of the brain are involved in most activities and work
Left brain controls ride side of the body and vice versa.
left brain/right brain approaches are not supported by research.
people of all ages continue to form new synapses as they develop new
experiences. Cognitive development:
Types of change,
1.'Physical, body structures and functions.
2. Personal, personality.
3. Social, ways we relate to others.
4 Cognitive, mental processes.
Cognitive development refers to,
changes in how people remember what they see and hear.
Think about problems they encounter.
Predict what might happen in the future.
Comprehend what they read.
Understand the similarities and differences between objects and ideas.
Create solutions for problems.
Swiss cognitive developmental psychologist.
qualitative stage model of development.
o stages are vastly different from one another.
major impact on the way we think about children's development.
early constructivist theorist:
o a student-centered educational method emphasizing the active role
of the learner, whereby students "construct" or build understanding
making sense of the information, and utilizing problem-solving
cognitive development follows predictable sequence based on biological
maturation and life experience.
mental systems or categories of organized information.
When faced with new information,
Assimilation: mold new information to fit existing schemas.
Accommodation: change existing schemas to fit new information. Steps in cognitive development,
1. Encounter new information.
2. Enrich or expand schemata with this new information, and assimilate
with present knowledge.
3. Upset cognitive balance, “disequilibrium.”
4. Alter schemata to accommodate new information, restore cognitive
balance or “equilibrium.”
Piaget's stages of cognitive development,
Sensorimotor (birth-2 years) "the Active child"
learns though the five senses.
move from reflex to goal directed actions.
imitate, memorize, think.
recognize object permanence.
operations: actions a person carries out by thinking them through rather
than literally performing the actions.
semiotic function (using language and thinking symbolically).
difficulty seeing another's point of view.
think operations through in only direction.
thinking is limited by egocentrism, centration (tendency to focus on only
one part of something rather than the whole), conservation, animism
(cannot distinguish between animate and inanimate objects).
Concrete operational (7-11