Lecture on September 10th: Parts of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Behavioral Neuroscience, Lecture on September 10th Presynaptic cells - before synapse begins. Postsynaptic cells - after synapse is completed. *The gap between the terminal button and the receiving membrane is know as the synaptic cleft. Glia, the support cells of the nervous systems.  can send signals amongst themselves. Microglia, small glia cells.  critical in immune response in the nervous system.  serve as microphages - eat and destroy other cells (foreign substances, diseases, etc.) Astrocytes, star cells.  located specifically in the central nervous system (also the most abundant).  provide physical support for neurons as they create a matrix that holds neurons in place.  connect to blood vessels in the brain, acquire glucose, either store the glucose or turn it to lactate, ultimately providing nourishment to neurons.  control chemical composition of fluid surrounding neurons.  help to form synapses between neurons.  selectively permeable. (blood-brain barrier) Blood-brain barrier,  capillaries have no gaps, tight junctions.  astrocytes keep viruses and drugs and toxins out of the brain but allow nourishing elements in. Myelinating glia, produces myelin. Schwann cell - myelinating glia located in the peripheral nervous system.  wraps itself around axon. Oligodendrocytes - myelinating glia in the central nervous system.  Can myelinate different axons of different neurons.  Much larger.  Myelinates multiple axons at once. Problems with myelin may lead, Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder.  attacks myelin causing scarring.  symptoms depend on locations of l
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