Behavioral Neuroscience, Lecture on October 8th
Synapses are tiny spaces between neurons.
Presynaptic cell - presynaptic membrane - synaptic cleft (space) - postsynaptic
membrane - postsynaptic cell.
Mitochondria and golgi bodies are found in the terminal button.
Mitochondria supply energy in the form of ATP.
Golgi bodies are responsible for packaging and sorting proteins.
Bundles of neurotransmitters are packed within synaptic vesicles.
The synapse is released at the release/active zone that meets up with the
Postsynaptic destiny is dense with neurotransmitters.
Release of neurotransmitters:
Exocytosis is when neurotransmitters are exiting the terminal button.
once the action potential reaches the terminal button this triggers
Positive calcium ions (more outside of the cell).
Can only get into the cell through voltage gated calcium channels.
Depolarization causes the voltage gated calcium channel to change shape-
allowing calcium to flow into the cell.
Calcium cells initiate protein cascades that move vesicles down the cell
membrane and then connect with docking proteins with which the vesicles
Once these vesicles break apart then opening forms called a fusion pore.
Neurotransmitters are then released out of the cell and into the synapse.
A calcium pump pumps calcium out of the cell. It is on all the time and uses ATP
because we are pumping against the concentration gradient.
Many neurotransmitter receptors are simply chemically-gated (aka ligand-gated)
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter.
One type of ACh receptor is a sodium channel.
Neurotransmitter receptors cause a small change in the membrane potential.
*Opening which of the following will cause an IPSP or EPSP?
Sodium - EPSP
Potassium - IPSP Chloride - IPSP
Calcium - Initiates protein cascades and also activates enzymes
Two types of postsynaptic recept