Lecture on October 29th: Development and Sleep

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Behavioral Neuroscience, Lecture on October 29 th Development, continued: Some chemicals attract and some repel the frowning axons and dendrites.  chemoattractants, chemical released that causes the growth cone to come towards the cell/ and chemorepellants (slit) produced at the mid-line so no developing neurons can cross the mid-line. Keeps the growth cone away from it. Death genes regulate apoptosis, Many "pro-death" and "pro-life" genes have been identified. Bcl-2 "pro-life" gene,  inhibits Diablo so IAPs continue to do their job so the cell is protected from the caspsase's. Diablo "pro-death" gene,  causes changes in the cell that allow lots of calcium to rush into the cell/Release calcium stores so lots of calcium flooding/Initiates protein cascades.  Diablo is released from the mitochondria and inhibits IAPs (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins).  Caspase's eat the DNA and the proteins in the cell, they are normally inhibited by IAP but when Diablo is released we disable IAPs allowing caspsase's to carry out destroying the cell. Cell death occurs. Neurotrophic factors are chemicals that are important for neuronal and synapse survival.  Those that don't receive neurotrophic factors will die out. Synapse rearrangement: Synaptic pruning, taking away all weak synapses so those that can remain are able to thrive. Full brain development requires thinning of neocortex as synapses are retracted.  last part of the brain to thin is the prefrontal cortex. Experience dependent: Sensitive periods,  use it or lose it, have neurons that we use then we keep then but other connections that aren't being used will die off.  example: early visual deprivation studies. Synapse rearrangement is a life-long process: Learning, new experiences, new activities, stress, enrichment, drugs, etc. - change the structure of your brain.  neuroplasticity. New evidence that all six stages of brain development continue into adulthood. Biological rhythms, sleep, and dreaming: Circadian rhythm refers to the pattern of behavior or physio
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