Sensation, Perception, Abuse & Dependence

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
David Gross

3/6 Lecture • Vocab: o Abuse vs Dependence:  Abuse – pattern of drug use in which people rely on drug chronically and excessively, allowing it to occupy a central place in their lives.  Dependence – known as addiction, people are physically dependent on drug in addition to abusing it. Tolerance has built up so increased doses required to obtain desired effect. o Intoxication – serotonin & dopamine in alcohol flood brain o Tolerance – a decrease in response to a drug with the passage of time. Causes user to need to consume more of the substance to achieve same effect. o Withdrawal  Physical vs emotional: • Physical – sweating, racing heart, palpitations, muscle tension, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea • Emotional – anxiety, restlessness, irritability, insomnia, headaches, poor concentration, depression, social isolation  Motivational – o Abstinence – refraining from the use of drugs or alcohol o Mechanisms of action:  amphetamines – releases dopamine & neuroepinepherine, blocks dopamine reuptake  cocaine – same as emphetamines  MDMA(ecstasy) – stimulates serotonin release & blocks its reuptake  LSD – activates serotonin receptors  marijuana – activates cannabinoid receptors  morphine – activate opiod receptors  heroin – same as morphine  alcohol – activate GABAreceptors  nicotine – activates acetylcholine receptors o Neurotransmitter systems (e.g., GABA, dopamine, CRF, opioid peptides):  GABA– acts @ inhibitory synapses in brain by allowing chloride ions into cell or potassium out of cell  Dopamine – plays role in motor control, motivation, arousal, cognition & reward  CRF (corticotropin releasing factor) – involved in stress response  Opioid peptides - o Neuroadaptations (e.g., cell birth, cell death, upregulation, downregulation) – o Binge drinking – drinking excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time o Positive vs negative reinforcement:  Positive – event or stimulus is present as a consequence of behavior and the behavior increases  Negative – rate of behavior increases because aversive event or stimulus is removed or prevented from happening o Light vs dark side:  Light o Brain regions & pathways:  Mesolimbocortical dopam
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