1. What are the 8 steps from seeing a coffee mug to grabbing it?
a. visual information is taken in and is required to locate the target
b. the frontal-lobe motor areas plan the reach & command the movement
c. the spinal cord carries information to the hand
d. motor neurons carry messages to muscles of the hand and forearm
e. sensory receptors on the fingers send message to sensory cortex saying the cup is
f. spinal cord carries sensory info to brain
g. basal ganglia judge grasp forces & cerebellum corrects movement errors
h. sensory cortex receives message that cup has been grasped
2. What cortices are involved in the control of voluntary movement? What is their individual
a. Prefrontal cortex: plans movements
b. Premotor cortex: organizes movement sequences
c. Motor cortex: produces specific movements
3. What are the 2 descending motor pathways for controlling movement? Which one crosses?
Which one controls the midline muscles?
a. lateral corticospinal tract: moves limbs and digits
i. this is also known as the crossed pyramidal tract because it crosses
b. ventral corticospinal tract: moves muscles of midline of the body
4. What are the 2 ascending pathways to send the sensory info back to the brain?
a. Spinothalamic Tract: pain, temperature, itch & crude touch
i. originates in spinal cord, transmits info to the thalamus
ii. composed of two parts:
1. lateral spinothalamic tract: pain & temperature
2. anterior spinothalamic tract: crude touch & firm pressure
iii. the axons of the tract cells cross over
b. Viscerosensory pathways: process stimuli received from viscera
5. What is the pathway for the monosynaptic reflex?
a. Monosynaptic reflex: transmission of info from a sensory neuron to appropriate motor
neuron across single synapse in spinal cord, resulting in quicker reaction
b. 2 types of monosynaptic reflex:
i. autonomic reflex arc: affects inner organs
ii. somatic reflex arc: affects muscles
6. What is the proprioception?
a. Proprioception is the sense of relative positions of neighboring parts of the body and
strength of effort being employed in movement.
b. Exteroception is how one perceives the outside world and interoception is how one
perceives pain, hunger, and the like.
7. What regions are included in the basal ganglia? What are the functional differences between
basal ganglia and cerebellum?
a. Regions of the basal ganglia:
i. Striatum: 1. Putamen – regulates movements & influences some types of learning
2. Caudate Nucleus – with the putamen they receive input from the cerebral
ii. Globus Pallidus (lateral)
iii. Globus Pallidus (medial)
iv. Caudate Nucleu Thalamus
v. Subthalamic Nucleus
vi. Substantia Niagra
Sleep & Learning
1. What are the differences between nREM sleep and REM sleep?
i. body temp. declines, heart rate decrea