The Big Brain

7 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course
PSYCH 330
Professor
David Gross
Semester
Spring

Description
Corey Reed Psych 330 1/22/14 The Big Brain • An Overview of Brain Function and Structure  brain’s primary function is producing behavior or movement  organs of nervous system convert information from world into biological activity that produces perception (subjective experiences of reality)  brain takes movement of air molecules into ear and perceives ringing sound o Plastic Patterns of Neural Organization  brain is plastic: has the capacity to adapt to world by changing how its functions are organized  connections among neurons in a functional system constantly changing in response to experience  neuroplasticity: the nervous system’s potential for physical or chemical change that enhances its adaptability to environmental change and its ability to compensate for injury o Functional Organization of the Nervous System  central nervous system (CNS) = brain and spinal cord  peripheral nervous system (PNS) = nerve fibers radiating beyond the brain and spinal cord and neurons outside brain and spinal cord  nerves of PNS carry info to and from CNS  somatic division of PNS carry info from world to CNS and directions from CNS to muscles  autonomic division of PNS enables CNS to govern internal organs • parasympathetic nerves control “rest & digest” • sympathetic nerves control “fight or flee”  afferent (incoming) = sensory info coming into CNS  efferent (outgoing) = info leaving CNS o The Brain’s Surface Features  Meninges = tough, triple-layered, protective covering of the brain • outer layer is dura mater = tough double layer of fibrous tissue enclosing brain & spinal cord • middle layer is arachnoid layer = thin sheet of delicate connective tissue following brain’s contours • inner layer is pia mater = moderately tough membrane of connective tissue fibers clinging to brain’s surface  cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) = colorless solution of sodium chloride @ salts between arachnoid & pia mater • cushions brain so it can move or expand w/o pressing on skull  the cerebrum is the major structure of the forebrain and the most recently evolved structure of the CNS  gyri = bumps of the brain  sulci = cracks of the brain (deep sulci are fissures)  brainstem is responsible for most unconscious behavior  brain’s surface covered in blood vessels • cerebral arteries emerge from neck, wrap around brain before piercing surface to inner regions • 3 main arteries are anterior, middle & posterior cerebral arteries  when cerebral artery blocked stroke occurs: causes neurological symptoms as result of interruption of blood flow o The Brain’s Internal Features  gray matter = darker regions composed of cell bodies & capillary blood vessels • collect & modify info or support this activity  white matter = nerve fibers w/ fatty coverings that form connections btwn cells  ventricles = contain cerebrospinal fluid • cells lining ventricles make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills them rd th • ventricles connected, 2 lateral ventricles flow to 3 & 4 ventricles into cerebral aqueduct running length of spinal cord • may play important role in maintaining brain metabolism  corpus callosum contains around 200 million nerve fibers & joins 2 hemispheres of brain, allowing communication  subcortical regions: forebrain structures related to cortical areas that process many different functions  brain shockingly symmetrical, except for pineal gland  brain has 2 main cell types: • neurons = carry out brain’s major functions • glial cells = aid & modulate neurons’activities  cerebral cortex forms layers of similar cells, subcortical regions composed of clusters (nuclei) of similar cells  neurons are connected by fibers called axons • axons that run along together form a nerve or a tract • tract refers to collections of nerve fibers within brain and spinal cord • The Somatic Nervous System: Transmitting Information  somatic nervous system (SNS) controlled by CNS, cranial nerves by brain, spinal nerves by spinal cord segments o The Cranial Nerves  control sensory inputs and motor control of facial muscles, tongue & eyes
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 330

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit