Developmental Psychology, Lecture on April 24th
Peers - Bullying
*Did you know, the word "bully" used to mean the opposite of what it means now.
Five hundred years ago, it mean friend or brother.
intentional actions that harm, intimidate, or humiliate another person.
may be repeated over time.
physical or recreational.
*Real or perceived power imbalance between bully and victim.
Frequency of bullying:
In a recent study of United States children,
13% report being victims of physical bullying.
37% report being the victim of verbal bullying.
An international problem:
teasing, taunting, and derogatory comments.
devastating effects on the target.
Almost everyone (example: cyber-bullying).
children who are shy, anxious or socially withdrawn.
o problematic if there don't have friends to help stand up to the bully
children who are high in aggression.
o engage in irritating behavior that elicits aggression.
Styles of coping:
Victims can respond with,
aggression, anger and contempt.
o not effective in stopping bullying. passive capitulation, submissive avoidance.
o not effective in stopping bullying.
constructive strategies (example: getting help).
o can be effective in stopping bully.
o only 8% of all those who are bullied try to get help.
A public health risk:
Children who are bullied are more likely to,
engage in self-harm.
experience psychosomatic complaints (headache, dizziness).
higher rates of a sense from school.
increased risk of suicidal behavior.
"Bullying occurs covertly." - False!
bystanders present 85% of bullying episodes.
o most bullying occurs during unsupervised times and unsupervised
areas at school.
Bystanders are involved to some degree:
"Follower" - joins in.
"Defender" - actively supports victim.