Lecture on April 24th: Peers - Bullying
Lecture on April 24th: Peers - Bullying

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Developmental Psychology, Lecture on April 24th Peers - Bullying *Did you know, the word "bully" used to mean the opposite of what it means now. Five hundred years ago, it mean friend or brother. Bullying:  intentional actions that harm, intimidate, or humiliate another person.  may be repeated over time.  physical or recreational. *Real or perceived power imbalance between bully and victim. Frequency of bullying: In a recent study of United States children,  13% report being victims of physical bullying.  37% report being the victim of verbal bullying. An international problem:  physical aggression.  teasing, taunting, and derogatory comments.  devastating effects on the target. Victims: Almost everyone (example: cyber-bullying). Extremes,  children who are shy, anxious or socially withdrawn. o problematic if there don't have friends to help stand up to the bully with them.  children who are high in aggression. o engage in irritating behavior that elicits aggression. Styles of coping: Victims can respond with,  aggression, anger and contempt. o not effective in stopping bullying.  passive capitulation, submissive avoidance. o not effective in stopping bullying.  constructive strategies (example: getting help). o can be effective in stopping bully. o only 8% of all those who are bullied try to get help. A public health risk: Children who are bullied are more likely to,  become depressed.  engage in self-harm.  anxious.  experience psychosomatic complaints (headache, dizziness).  poorer grades.  higher rates of a sense from school.  increased risk of suicidal behavior. Common myth: "Bullying occurs covertly." - False!  bystanders present 85% of bullying episodes.  usually peers. o most bullying occurs during unsupervised times and unsupervised areas at school. Bystanders are involved to some degree:  "Follower" - joins in.  "Defender" - actively supports victim.  "Disengaged o
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