Social Psychology, Lecture on April 18 th
Need for affiliation.
o Inborn motivation to seek interpersonal contact.
o Individual difference variable.
o Can be situationally sensitive.
Schacter, 1959: threat of painful shocks.
Painful emotional shocks / wanted to wait with other
Role of affect.
o Direct and indirect.
o Macro and micro levels.
More likely to meet people at UMASS then Hampshire
college or on the sit of the room you’re sitting on than the
o Physical and functional proximity.
More likely to be friends with your neighbor than the girl
upstairs / More likely to be friends with a girl who lives near
the mailboxes since you check your mailbox everyday.
o Segal, 1974: police academy friendships.
Similarity in age, marital status, religion, friends based on
the first letter of their last names (put together) all
contributes to friendships.
o Mere exposure effect.
Liking increases with frequency of exposure.
Moreland and Beach, 1992: RAs come to class.
Asked RAs to come to class and sit in for a number of
times. One women shows up zero times another five
times and another ten times. With frequency of
contact, the woman tended to be more comfortable
and subconsciously enjoy attending the class.
o Physically attractive people are better lied.
o Dion (1972): Misbehaving child.
Showed people a photograph of a misbehaving child either
mild or severe behavior. The photo either showed an
attractive or unattractive child then asked whether or not the
behavior was typical. If the child was attractive people said
that the behavior was not typical, but when the child was
ugly people assumed that the child always misbehaved. o Hatfield et al. (1966): “Computer dance.”
Told people they were “matched” by a computer program,
had them get together at a dance. The only variable that
depended on whether or not the “matches” went out on a
second date was physical attractiveness.
Why does attractiveness increase liking?
o Aesthetic appeal.
o “What is beautiful is good” stereotype.
May evoke self-fulfilling prophecy.
Snyder, Tanks, and Berscheid, 1977: Intercom study.
o Women and men are paired up to talk over an
intercom. Men were given false information
about the woman and given a manipulated
photography (either ugly or beautiful).
Conversations were played back to other judges
who were given no information on the women