PSYCH 360 - Chapter 6 Study Guide

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Linda Isbell

1 Chapter 6 – Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination The Three Components of an Attitude: 1. Cognitive (stereotypes) 2. Affective (prejudice) 3. Behavioral (discrimination) Stereotypes – generalized beliefs about a group as a whole. What is the purpose of stereotyping? 1. Quick thinking, providing a basis for immediate action in uncertain circumstances 2. Efficient, and allows people to cognitively engage in other necessary activities Kernel of Truth Hypothesis – considers whether stereotypes that people commonly hold may, in fact, be partially accurate. Prejudice – attitudes towards members of specific groups that directly or indirectly suggest they deserve an inferior social status. Explicit Prejudice – prejudicial attitudes that are consciously held, even if they are not publicly expressed. Implicit Prejudice – unconsciously held prejudicial attitudes. What is the Implicit Association Test? How does it measure bias?  The IAT measures prejudice associations between racial groups and finds that stereotypes are learned. It measures bias by bringing to light implicit prejudices. What is a stigma?  An attribute that serves to discredit a person in the eyes of others. Courtesy Stigma – a stigma acquired as a result of being related to a person with a stigma. What distinguishes stereotypes from other schemas?  Strong emotions Discrimination – a negative and/or patronizing action towards members of specific groups. Stereotypes and Prejudice come from: Cognitive factors, social factors, inter-group competition, motivational factors, personality factors, social learning factors. Cognitive Factors: Principle of Least Effort – the tendency to rely on over-simplified generalizations and to resist information that complicates our categorical distinctions. 2 Illusory Correlation – the belief that two variables are associated with each other when in fact there is little or no actual association. In-group/Out-group categorization – recognizes the role of the self in relation to others. In-group: a group to which we belong and that forms a part of our social identity. Out-group: a group with which we do not share membership. In-group bias – tendency to give more favorable evaluations and greater rewards to in- group members Describe the experiment done by Jane Elliott in an elementary school classroom involving blue- eyed and brown-eyed children.  Day 1: Blue-eyed children were considered dominant. They were generally unpleasant to the brown-eyed children and did better academically. On the other hand, brown-eyed children became timid and did poorly on even the simplest academic tests.  Day 2: Brown-eyed children were considered dominant. They were also unpleasant to the inferiors, but that unpleasantness was to a lesser extent than what they were subjected to the day before. Their academic performance rose despite the dip just a day earlier, while their blue-eyed peers’ academic performance dropped. Ethnocentrism is a pattern of increased hostility toward out-groups accompanied by increased loyalty to one's in-group. In-group bias is the basis for this. In-group bias influences: 1. Memory 2. Attributions Minimal intergroup situation – dividing individuals up into groups in an arbitrary and meaningless way. What is the minimal intergroup paradigm?  Investigates the minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur between groups, and results in one always favoring one’s own group. Out-group homogene
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