Chapter 6 – Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
The Three Components of an Attitude:
1. Cognitive (stereotypes)
2. Affective (prejudice)
3. Behavioral (discrimination)
Stereotypes – generalized beliefs about a group as a whole.
What is the purpose of stereotyping?
1. Quick thinking, providing a basis for immediate action in uncertain circumstances
2. Efficient, and allows people to cognitively engage in other necessary activities
Kernel of Truth Hypothesis – considers whether stereotypes that people commonly hold
may, in fact, be partially accurate.
Prejudice – attitudes towards members of specific groups that directly or indirectly suggest they
deserve an inferior social status.
Explicit Prejudice – prejudicial attitudes that are consciously held, even if they are not
Implicit Prejudice – unconsciously held prejudicial attitudes.
What is the Implicit Association Test? How does it measure bias?
The IAT measures prejudice associations between racial groups and finds that stereotypes
are learned. It measures bias by bringing to light implicit prejudices.
What is a stigma? An attribute that serves to discredit a person in the eyes of others.
Courtesy Stigma – a stigma acquired as a result of being related to a person with a
What distinguishes stereotypes from other schemas? Strong emotions
Discrimination – a negative and/or patronizing action towards members of specific groups.
Stereotypes and Prejudice come from: Cognitive factors, social factors, inter-group
competition, motivational factors, personality factors, social learning factors.
Principle of Least Effort – the tendency to rely on over-simplified generalizations and to
resist information that complicates our categorical distinctions. 2
Illusory Correlation – the belief that two variables are associated with each other when in
fact there is little or no actual association.
In-group/Out-group categorization – recognizes the role of the self in relation to others.
In-group: a group to which we belong and that forms a part of our social identity.
Out-group: a group with which we do not share membership.
In-group bias – tendency to give more favorable evaluations and greater rewards to in-
Describe the experiment done by Jane Elliott in an elementary school classroom involving blue-
eyed and brown-eyed children.
Day 1: Blue-eyed children were considered dominant. They were generally unpleasant to
the brown-eyed children and did better academically. On the other hand, brown-eyed
children became timid and did poorly on even the simplest academic tests.
Day 2: Brown-eyed children were considered dominant. They were also unpleasant to the
inferiors, but that unpleasantness was to a lesser extent than what they were subjected to
the day before. Their academic performance rose despite the dip just a day earlier, while
their blue-eyed peers’ academic performance dropped.
Ethnocentrism is a pattern of increased hostility toward out-groups accompanied by increased
loyalty to one's in-group. In-group bias is the basis for this.
In-group bias influences:
Minimal intergroup situation – dividing individuals up into groups in an arbitrary and
What is the minimal intergroup paradigm? Investigates the minimal conditions
required for discrimination to occur between groups, and results in one always favoring
one’s own group.