PSYCH 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Statistical Significance, Random Assignment, Central Tendency

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Psychology 100 Lecture 4
Correlational Research vs Experimental Research in Psychology
Correlational
-Prediction: From knowing x can we predict y?
- Used when you want to understand relationships between two things and be able
to predict behaviors
- Is there an association between two variables?
-do not manipulate anything just measure it
Example: hotter a room gets the more students fall asleep
Positive correlation
-one variable goes up the other goes up
-one variable down the other goes down
-rise and fall together
Example: the more outgoing a person is, the more parties they attend
-linear upwards
Negative correlation
-one variable goes up one variable goes down
-Example: more drinks the night before an exam the lower your test grade is
-linear downwards
No correlation
-no relationship between two variables
-Example: number of red sweaters in ones closet isn't related to GPA
-points everywhere on graph with no direction
Strength of correlation
-examine factors like race, age, sex
-factors that cannot be changed
Weaknesses of correlation
-correlation does not prove causation
-Example: kids watching violent TV vs aggression in kids
-cannot say it causes aggression because maybe kids that are aggressive watch
more violent things you cannot determine actual cause
- third variable problem:
Example: the more ice cream consumed in a month the more murders
occur
-cant say it causes murders because the third variable could be temperature
-Example: parental neglect related to both aggressive kids and kids
watching violent TV
-two things related doesn't mean they play a role in causation
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Document Summary

Used when you want to understand relationships between two things and be able to predict behaviors. Example: hotter a room gets the more students fall asleep. One variable goes up the other goes up. Example: the more outgoing a person is, the more parties they attend. One variable goes up one variable goes down. Example: more drinks the night before an exam the lower your test grade is. Example: number of red sweaters in ones closet isn"t related to gpa. Example: kids watching violent tv vs aggression in kids. Cannot say it causes aggression because maybe kids that are aggressive watch more violent things you cannot determine actual cause. Two things related doesn"t mean they play a role in causation. Example: the more ice cream consumed in a month the more murders occur. Cant say it causes murders because the third variable could be temperature. Example: parental neglect related to both aggressive kids and kids watching violent tv.

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