•What is psychology?
◦Science of behavior and mental processes with behavior
being any observable thing we do and mental processes
being our internal, subjective experiences (thoughts, etc.)
•What kind of things do psychologists study, what
questions do they ask?
▪Color vision, states of consciousness, motivation
(sexual, sleep, etc.), helping behavior
(inﬂuences), phobias (fear vs. phobia),
development, personality, memory
•What organisms do we study?
•Ethics, simpler systems
◦Method of inquiry
•How do we study it?
•Issues in psychology
◦Consciousness vs. unconsciousness
•Ex. A person means to say "you look great" but really
say "you look fat"
◦Free will vs. determinism
•Ex. Can a person choose to get themselves out of a
◦Individual differences vs. universals
•Ex. Is it OK to turn a trolley away from killing 5 people
on one track to a track where it kills only 1 person?
◦Nature vs. nurture
•Based on environment and experiences
•Ex. Does heredity play a major role in determining IQ?
•Perspectives in Biology
•How does the brain/biology affect behavior?
▪Do speciﬁc neurons begin to ﬁre when we see
▪How does behavior/mental processes promote
▪How unconscious conﬂicts/drives determine
•Are we attracted to someone because they
are like our mom/dad?
▪How do our experiences and environment affect
▪How does information processing affect thoughts/
▪How do behavior/thinking vary across situation/
◦The scientiﬁc method
•Hypothesis - a statement that can be tested for validity
•Dissatisfaction with other's theories
•New questions about research
•Personal observation and curiosity
•Research - test your hypothesis (experimentation with
◦Types of Research
▪When to use: describe what's going on, what is
the nature of the behavior
▪Description: What is the nature of the
), helping behavior (in uences), phobias (fear vs. phobia), development, personality, memory: population, what organisms do we study, humans, animals. Ethics, simpler systems: method of inquiry, how do we study it, case studies/observations/surveys, correlation, experimentation. A person means to say "you look great" but really say "you look fat: free will vs. determinism. Can a person choose to get themselves out of a depressive state: individual differences vs. universals. Is it ok to turn a trolley away from killing 5 people on one track to a track where it kills only 1 person: nature vs. nurture. Socio-cultural: how do behavior/thinking vary across situation/ cultures, research methods, the scienti c method, hypothesis - a statement that can be tested for validity, comes from , dissatisfaction with other"s theories, new questions about research. Examine one person in depth to understand human nature in general.