PSYCH 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Myelin, Dendrite, Parietal Lobe

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I. Neurons and Neural communication
I. Neurons/neural impulses
II. Neural communication
III. Neurotransmitters
II. Nervous system
I. Structure and function
II. Reflexes vs. neural networks
III. The brain
I. Studying the brain
II. Brian regions/function
III. Hemispheric differences
!
Neurons - structure
Dendrite - the "inbox"
Receives electrochemical signals (impulses) from
sensory structures and other neurons
Ex. Taste, hear, smell something ---> sends to
neurons
Cell body - basic cellular functions
Metabolizes food, gets ride of waste
Axon - the "outbox" (axon = away)
Sends signals to other neurons and effector cells
(muscles)
Myelin sheath - a fatty substance that encases the axons of
some cells
Increases the speed of transmission
Terminal vesicles (axon terminals) - branch-like structure
that stores and eventually releases enzymes
(neurotransmitters)
Synapse - small space between the axons of one (sending)
cell and the dendrites of the next (receiving) cell
Receptor sites - locations on the dendrite of receiving
neurons
Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites (on dendrites)
and the process begins anew
Neurons - communication
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How does information travel within a neuron?
Action potential
All neurons have a resting state (-70mv)
Dendrite is stimulated (positive ions flow into the
cell until…)
Threshold is reached (-65mv) ---> action potential
is triggered (all-or-nothing response)
Wave moves down the axon
Wave reaches the axon terminals
How is information passed from one neuron to the next?
Wave reaches the axon terminals
Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse
Neurotransmitters bind with receptors on dendrite of
next receiving neuron
Process starts in the next cell
Neurotransmitters either excite or inhibit the next
neuron
Refractory period - brief period when the neuron is
unable to fire again
Reuptake - excess neurotransmitters are taken
back for reuse in the axon terminals of the neuron
that released them
Return to resting state (-70mv)
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine - movement (can cause paralysis if injected),
learning, memory
Too little - Alzheimer's, dementia
Endorphins - nature's pain reliever
Eating chocolate, athletics, stress
Serotonin - mood, sleep, hunger, arousal
Too little - depression
Dopamine - movement, learning, attention, emotion
Too much - schizophrenia
Too little - Parkinson's
GABA - eating, sleeping
Too little - anxiety disorders
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Document Summary

Hemispheric differences: neurons - structure, dendrite - the "inbox, receives electrochemical signals (impulses) from sensory structures and other neurons, ex. Taste, hear, smell something ---> sends to neurons: cell body - basic cellular functions, metabolizes food, gets ride of waste, axon - the "outbox" (axon = away) Sends signals to other neurons and effector cells (muscles: myelin sheath - a fatty substance that encases the axons of some cells. Too little - alzheimer"s, dementia: endorphins - nature"s pain reliever. Eating chocolate, athletics, stress: serotonin - mood, sleep, hunger, arousal. Too little - depression: dopamine - movement, learning, attention, emotion. Too little - parkinson"s: gaba - eating, sleeping. Inhibitory, not excitatory (keeps next neuron from ring: drugs - effect on neural communication, agonists - mimics the action of neurotransmitters. Blocks reuptake of neurotransmitter (leaves more: counteracts enzymes that clean out the synapse. Ssri"s inhibit reuptake --> elevates mood: antagonists - blocks the action of neurotransmitters.

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