PSYCH 305 Lecture 3: lecture 3

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Attachment theory: the fundamental assumption in attachment research on
human infants is that sensitive responding by the parent to the infant’s needs
results in an infant who demonstrates secure attachment while lack of such
responding results in insecure attachment
Adult attachment
o Attachment styles relatively consistent across age, gender, culture
and other social contexts
o 50-60% of adults endorse secure attachment beliefs
o 20-30% of adults say they are avoidant
o 10-15% of adults are anxious-ambivalent
o Broader ranges in cross-cultural infant research
o In the 4 dimension model, 2-5% say they are fearful, this style is
strongly linked to significant early loss and/or traumatic childhood
Neuroscience and development
o Difference between brain and mind: psychologists think that we only
have a brain not a mind
o Impacts brain development
Exposure to different things (environment)
o To develop more elaborate and lasting neural connections
Need significant amounts of time, attention and practice
Need emotional, personal and survival connections to the
content being learned
Current research: memory
o Attention: Forgetting is often attention related rather than memory
o Building patterns and connection: learning involves establishing
relatively permanent synaptic connections
o Novices vs. experts: experts organize info differently than do non-
Good teaching involves organizing information
Current research: Neurological
o Math
Facts and procedures seem to be stored in separate areas of
the cerebral cortex
Calculation seems to be largely confined to the left hemisphere
Comparing and ordering information seem to be located in the
posterior regions of the right hemisphere
o Math instruction
Brain based learning: involves teaching strategies that use what we know
about the brain
o Principle 1: the brain responds positively (dopamine, noradrenaline)
to exercise and movement
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