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Lecture 17

RES-ECON 162 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Ecosystem Services, Social Cost, Kyoto ProtocolPremium

11 pages17 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Resource Economics
Course Code
RES-ECON 162
Professor
Laurence De Geeste
Lecture
17

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Res econ 262- 4/27/17
History on ozone depletion. Concentrations of ozone depleting chemicals.
Global CO2 emissions = population x (GDP/POPULATION) * (
Developing countries who are party o the protocol do not have binding emissions reduction
targets.
Copenhagen Accord 2009
Carbon prices are the market prices of tradabale carbon permits.
Costs of reducing greenhouse emissions-
Benefits of reducing- estimates of the marginal damage of greenhouse gases are even more
uncertain, because they de[end on details of how climate will change, the impacts of change
and the ability of economics to adapt or climate change.
Policy responses- two responses for global warming-
Trade or other sanctions against free-riding
countries. The Montreal Protocol
implemented a ban on trade in ozone
depleting chemicals with non-
participating nations.
Reciprocal treatment on other international
issues. A country may be willing to forego
a free-riding opportunity if it thinks it can
gain cooperation on other issues it thinks
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are important.
Side payments. Transfers of something
valuable may convince a country to pass
up a free-riding opportunity. E.g.,
Multilateral fund and technology transfer
under the Montreal Protocol, and Joint
Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol.
Actual treaties use various auxiliary
provisions to limit freeriding, and increase
cooperation.
One of these is to negotiate a minimum
participation requirement, which is a rule
that, in part, determines how many
countries must join a treaty before it enters
into force.
Trade or other sanctions against free-riding
countries. The Montreal Protocol
implemented a ban on trade in ozone
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depleting chemicals with non-
participating nations.
Reciprocal treatment on other international
issues. A country may be willing to forego
a free-riding opportunity if it thinks it can
gain cooperation on other issues it thinks
are important.
Side payments. Transfers of something
valuable may convince a country to pass
up a free-riding opportunity. E.g.,
Multilateral fund and technology transfer
under the Montreal Protocol, and Joint
Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol.
Often international environmental
negotiations open up conflicts between
developed and developing nations.
Developing countries are less able to take
on global environmental challenges.
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