BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Hydroxy Group, Enantiomer, Protein Structure

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4 Feb 2017
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Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bonding among water molecules is responsible for surface tension
Important in water transport in plants (done through the xylem)
Allows water to efficiently function in physiological cooling
Water moderates climate
Cities to the coastline are cooler than those that are not
Solid water is less dense than liquid water
In ice, hydrogen bonds are stable
In liquid water, hydrogen bonds constantly break and reform
Carbon
6protons, 6 neutrons, atomic mass= 12
Hydrogen: 1 single bond
Oxygen: 2 single bonds
Nitrogen: 3 single bonds
Carbon: 4 single bonds
Organic Chemistry: Study of carbon compounds except carbon monoxide (carbon chemistry)
Organic compounds can exist as isomers
Same molecular formula
Different structure/shape
Structural isomers differ in covalent partners that make up their structures
Isomer
Cis Trans isomers differ in arrangement around a double bond
Cis: the two x's are on the same side
Trans: two x's are on opposite sides
Enantiomers are mirror images, occur when a carbon atom is single bonded to four different
things
Hydrocarbons: compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
Can be linear, branched or cyclic
Organic compounds
Many organic compounds consist of a "Carbon skeleton" covalently bonded to one or more
"functional groups"
The function groups confer specific chemical properties
Two sex hormones share same carbon skeleton, difference is the functional group
Male lion (testosterone)
Female lion (estradiol)
Functional Groups:
1. Hydroxyl: -OH,
Names usually end in -ol, (alchohols)
Polar from electrons spending more time near electronegative atoms
Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules helping dissolve organic compounds such as
sugar
1. Carbonyl :
Ketone: if carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
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