BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Dietary Fiber, Disaccharide, Triglyceride

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4 Feb 2017
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Biomolecules
Monday, January 30, 2017
6:30 PM
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Carbohydrates: sugars or polymers subunits of molymers
Dehydration reaction removes a water molecule forming a new bond
Smallest are called sugars (monosaccharides )
Ex: Glucose , ose means carbohydrate/sugar
Monosaccharides are simple sugar
Disaccharide: sucrose: composed of glucose covalently linked to fructose (glucose-fruc
Consist of two monosaccharides covalently linked
Polysaccharides:
Polymers made from many monosaccharide monomers
Starch, plants (store energy), polymer of glucose
Glycogen; animals (energy storage) polymer of glucose
Cellulose; plants ( structural components of cell wall- holds plants together) , polymer of
Cellullose: structural component of plant cell walls
Indigestible by humans, contributes to dietary fiber
Human enzymes break down starch, but not cellulose
Even cows can not directly digest cellulose. Microbes in their gut do it for them.
When we digest milk we get energy from cellulose indirectly from the sun, plant, animal
Chitin: Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons
Unlike other carbohydrates, chiton's monomer contains a nitrogen atom
Indigestable by humans
Hydrolysis: Breaking down a polymer,hydrolysis adds a water molecule breaking a bon
Hydrolysis reaction.
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