BIOL 290 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Rudolf Virchow, Carl Linnaeus, Microevolution

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13 Sep 2018
Department
Course
Evolution
Thursday, September 13, 2018
5:18 PM
Why?
Understand the diversity
Enhance food production
Explain bizarre, and fascinating adaptations
Understand our origins
Emerging agricultural pests
Emerging infectious diseases
Manage evolution of drug resistance
Maintaining biodiversity and nature's services to humans
What is evolution
Evolution is descent with modification; evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a
population across generations
1. Individuals in a population vary in a trait
2. Trait is heritable
3. Individuals vary in reproductive success
4. Alleles with less success are lost, and those with higher success are fixed over time
5. The distribution of genotypes in this population has changed; evolution has occurred
Microevolution: change in the distribution of genotypes in a population from one generation to
the next
Macroevolution: formation of new species and other taxa over millions of years
Mechanisms of evolution:
Natural Selection
Genetic Drift
Mutation
1735: Carl Linnaeus: held that species were fixed, although related according to divine plan;
wanted to name everything
1750s: Georges De Buffon: suggested that some similar species such as horses and zebras, or lions
tigers and leopards might be varieties descended from a common ancestor
Noted that despite similar environments different regions have distinct plant and animal species:
Buffon's law
Early 1800s: Jean Baptiste de Lamarck: spontaneous generation; two forces comprising evolution:
Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
1. A force driving animals from simple to complex forms and
2. A force adapting individuals to their local environments and differentiating them from eachother
1850s
Rudolf Virchow: All cells come from cells
Louis Pasteur: Organisms come from other organisms
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: Species come from other species via natural selection
o Cowrote a note on evolution
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