BIOL 290 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Epistasis, Interactome, Lte (Telecommunication)

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18 Sep 2018
Department
Course
Mutations and Evolution: Guest Speaker
Tuesday, September 18, 2018
4:00 PM
Base mutations= Point Mutations= Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Insertions
Inversions
Deletions
Recombination
Transposition: inner objects moving around to create changes
Ecoli
4,377 genes
1 chromosome, haploid
Humans:
20,000 genes
23 pairs of chromosomes
Junk DNA
No junk DNA, only junk scientists
Has important functions
If it has mutations, can lead to diseases such as cancer
Long Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE)
Nonselective conditions, and see if bacteria mutate (REL606)
6 ARA-, 6 ARA+; do we see mutations
3 had a higher mutation rate than normal: hypermutations (genes that were supposed to reverse
mutations were inactivated)
After 300 days (2000 generations;) fitness (how rapidly they are dividing) had changed 37%
Average cell volume increasing exponentially then leveling off (fitness increases than levels)
Steven J
Alteration of natural selection
The observed effect vs. what is happening at the molecular level
Multiple places (locations) to get increases/decreases
Darwin
Herbert Spencer:
Survival of the fittest: The fittest is able to survive and reproduce more
Citrate:
Perservative; will bind certain positively charged atoms
If mutation occurs, may allow to use more than citrate in few generations, and survive better
1 population had series of mutations that allowed it to then use citrate
Other 11 populations does not have cit+ ability nor do they develop it
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