American Politics COMPLETE NOTES [Part 1] - I got a 4.0 in the course!

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February 26, 2014 Paper due March 3 Must turn it in in two ways: ● Turnitin on Moodle ● Hard Copy in Class Midterm - Wednesday, March 12th, 2014 Civil Rights: Today’s Questions ● What are Civil Rights? ● How have Civil Rights developed over time? ○ Courts, Social Movements, and Congress interacted to incorporate African American equality ● What is Equality? ● What is Affirmative Action and why is it so controversial? I. Civil Rights v. Civil Liberties ● Contract ● Obligations to v. Protections From ○ Obligations of the federal government to protect citizens from any illegal action perpetrated by states or private institutions ○ Obligation to ensure/protect equal treatment and equal protection under the law ● Groups v. Individuals ○ Civil Rights focus on individuals rather than groups ○ To protect the rights of groups from attacks from states or private organizations - Civil Liberties ● Origins ○ 13th Amendment - Abolish Slavery ○ 15th Amendment - African American Right to Vote (Men) ○ 14th Amendment - Focus on Civil Rights ■ Defines Citizenship (Dual) ● “All persons born or naturalized in the US and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the US and of the state wherein they reside” ■ Due Process to all citizens of the US ● No state can violate rights of individual without due process ■ Supremacy of National Citizenship ■ Equal Treatment ● Restrict states from passing or enforcing law that treats citizens differently (suspect class) ○ Cannot pass law if you are state or locality that treats individual citizens or groups of citizens DIFFERENTLY ■ Race, gender, religion, sexual orientation ■ Equal Protection ● All citizens are afforded the same rights and protections in the Constitution regardless of their identity ● Umbrella expanded over time - initially only about protection of African American rights II. Development of Civil Rights: Reconstruction (1869-1877) ● Reconstruction - after Civil War ○ Northern forces invading and occupying the South ■ South still calls this the “Great Occupation” - more negative than “Reconstruction Period” ○ Political and Socio-economic Freedom ■ 2 Black Senators during this period ■ 14 Members of Congress ■ Congress supported: ○ Civil Rights Act of 1875 ■ Abolished Segregation in Social Settings ○ Hayes-Tilden Compromise ■ Hayes - Republican (North, Controlled White House) ■ Tilden - Democrat (South) ■ Hayes lost popular vote and potentially electoral college ■ Hayes would take presidency but Northerners would have to “un- occupy” the south ○ Why is this period important in the development of civil rights? III. Development of Civil Rights: Jim Crow (1877-1954) ● Laws supporting African American racial discrimination ○ Social segregation ● Political Restrictions ○ Undermining of their political power and right to vote ○ Grandfather Clause ■ “You are allowed to vote if your grandfather was allowed to vote” ○ Poll Tax ■ Taxes on the right to vote ■ Fee of voting was very subjective ○ Literacy Test ■ “If you can read, then you can vote” ■ Tests were difficult and most uneducated African Americans could not pass it ○ White Primary ■ Process of whites during this period of time to restrict Af Americans to participate in the democratic primary ■ Af Am had no influence on who would ultimately win ● Social Re
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