Sociology 101 Notes
19 September 2013
Norms: Written and unwritten rules that specify behaviors appropriate and inappropriate to a
particular social situation.
Sanctions- expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating
-Positive Sanctions- rewards given for following norms
-Negative sanctions- expressions of disapproval for breaking norms
• Actions that are not just “bad”, but unthinkable. Taboo actions lead others to experience
rage, disgust, etc.
• Much stronger reactions to taboo behavior than behavior that violates either folkways or
• For example, cannibalism and incest are taboo in American culture (and in most, but not
all, other cultures).
Values: general, shared conceptions of what is good, right, appropriate, worthwhile, and
important with regard to conduct, appearance, and states of being
Core American Values
1. Achievement and success
3. Activity and work
4. Efficiency and practicality