DNA, RNA, and Genetics

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ANTH 1001
Kieran Mc Nulty

DNA How is variation achieved? How is it passed to future generations? Where is DNA, and what does it do? Cell Biology • Cell membrane ◦ outside, bounding portion of cell • Cytoplasm ◦ liquid stuff inside of the cell • Nucleus ◦ genetic material (DNA) is organized there • Other Genetic Material 2 types of cells: • Somatic cells ◦ make up most of the structures in the body • Gametes ◦ sex cells (egg and sperm) Cell division • method reproduction of cells • done because cells die, need more cells as we grow Mitosis • cell division for somatic cells • genetic material is duplicated, then cell is divided in two • results in two identical daughter cells • diploid condition (number of chromosomes) is retained Meiosis • producing a haploid gamete from a diploid cell • cell division for gametes • double genetic material, split into two cells, cells split again • results in 4* haploid daughter cells • only ONE chromosome from each parent is passed to offspring • *in women (egg production), only result in a single viable daughter cell Crossover • exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes • occurs when chromosomes line up before cell splits • Importance: creates more possibilities/diversification DNA Structures • composed of 2 chains of nucleotides • nucleotide: phosphate, sugar, base (create sides of the DNA ladder) • Bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (create the steps of the DNA ladder) ◦ A -- T ◦ C -- G • DNA "chain" is build with a complimentary chain attached • Twists to form a double helix • Formation of DNA ◦ Nucleotides link into chains to form a single stran
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