DNA, RNA, and Genetics

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1001
Professor
Kieran Mc Nulty
Semester
Spring

Description
DNA How is variation achieved? How is it passed to future generations? Where is DNA, and what does it do? Cell Biology • Cell membrane ◦ outside, bounding portion of cell • Cytoplasm ◦ liquid stuff inside of the cell • Nucleus ◦ genetic material (DNA) is organized there • Other Genetic Material 2 types of cells: • Somatic cells ◦ make up most of the structures in the body • Gametes ◦ sex cells (egg and sperm) Cell division • method reproduction of cells • done because cells die, need more cells as we grow Mitosis • cell division for somatic cells • genetic material is duplicated, then cell is divided in two • results in two identical daughter cells • diploid condition (number of chromosomes) is retained Meiosis • producing a haploid gamete from a diploid cell • cell division for gametes • double genetic material, split into two cells, cells split again • results in 4* haploid daughter cells • only ONE chromosome from each parent is passed to offspring • *in women (egg production), only result in a single viable daughter cell Crossover • exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes • occurs when chromosomes line up before cell splits • Importance: creates more possibilities/diversification DNA Structures • composed of 2 chains of nucleotides • nucleotide: phosphate, sugar, base (create sides of the DNA ladder) • Bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine (create the steps of the DNA ladder) ◦ A -- T ◦ C -- G • DNA "chain" is build with a complimentary chain attached • Twists to form a double helix • Formation of DNA ◦ Nucleotides link into chains to form a single stran
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