Predicting Unit_Class Notes.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1061
Professor
Hyunjoo Im
Semester
Fall

Description
Class Notes I. Decomposition Reaction  Tends to start w/ 1 reactant simpler substances  Tend to form common simple substances as products; ex: N , H O2 CO2, simp2e salts  Key words: something starts it: ―heated‖, ―catalyst‖, ―current‖  Ex: A sample of limestone containing calcium carbonate is heated oCaCO → C3 + CaO 2 o*AP: nothing above arrow = graded oRule: carbonates always decompose into CO and wh2t’s left over  Memorize (mem): Ammonia is electrically decomposed o2NH → N + 3H (above arrow = lightening bolt) 3 2 2  *AP: Balance the equation! Even if wrong reaction’s balanced, still get point (pt.) for balancing  Mem: Chlorates always form simple salt + O 2 oEx: Potassium Chlorate is strongly heated, 2KClO → 2KC3 + 3O 2  *AP: States of matter for the reaction not counted unless stated in the problem  Mem: Hydrogen Peroxide is decomposed o2H O 2 2H O + O2 2 II. Combustion Reactions  Each element in reactant combines w/ O 2  Key words: ―burned‖, ―reacted in O ‖,2air = O 2  Look for common substances oC + O → 2O 2 oN + O → 2O 2 oS + O →2SO (or S2 if pro3lem says ―excess O ) 2  Ex: Oxygen gas is mixed w/ ammonia in the presence of platinum (common catalyst) o4NH + 7O → 4NO + 6H O 3 2 2 2 oCombine every element w/ O  Ex: Solid zinc sulfide is heated in excess oxygen oZnS + 2O → Z2O + SO 3  Combustion of hydrocarbon oC H3+ 8O → 4H2O + 3CO2 2 III. Synthesis Reactions (Combination)  2 reactants  1 product  Look for possibility to form simple polyatomic salts/common compounds look for polyatomic ions  Key words: ―gas is passed (over)‖  Ex: Sulfur dioxide gas is passed over solid calcium oxide oSO 2(g) CaO →(s)SO 3 oIf sulfur trioxide passed  SO 3(g)+ CaO →(s)SO 4  Ex: A piece of lithium metal is dropped into a container of nitrogen gas o6Li + N →22i N 3  Halogen substitutions: alkene is exposed to a halogen, halogen replaces double bond oEx: propene gas is mixed with bromine vapor  C 3 +6Br → 2 H Br3 6 2 —C—C = C + Br → —C2C—C— Br Br IV. Precipitate/Net Ionic Reaction  Must have at least one solid, liquid, or gas formation  *AP: there’s never ―no reaction‖, everything works  Must get rid of spectator ions in final reaction  How to: o1) Predict Products (swap cations) o2) Check solubility; product always = solid unless water (l), diatomic (g), or otherwise stated o3) Erase spectator ions o4) Balance & rewrite equation  Solubility Rules oAlways Soluble: Nitrates, Acetates, Perchlorates, Group 1 metals, ammonium salts 2+ + 2+ oSoluble except: {chlorides, bromides, iodides} except w/ Pb , Ag , Hg , 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ {sulfates} except Pb , Sr , Hg 2 , Ba oInsoluble Except: {Carbonates, phosphates} except w/ an always solu
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