EEB 3408W Lecture 5: ecology lecture 5

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Demography
Monarch butterfly case study - 4 stages of the butterfly life cycle
- Egg, 1 week to hatch
- Caterpillar
- pupae , 1 week
- Hang upside down to pump nutrients to wings
- Revisit assumption that all individuals are equal
- Individuals are usually not identical in regards to reproduction
- Most cannot reproduce until some time after they are born
- Monarchs fly up to texas, lay eggs there
- First generation is born and travels up about Kansas and lay eggs there
- Second generation up to iowa
- 3rd generation up to minnesota
- 4th to canada
- Signals to travel back to mexico (milkweed, day length, sunlight hours)
- Stay in mexico in winter November to March
- Population subsets in florida and californation
- Global warming allows them to stay north for longer but the milkweed (food) for them
does not stay nutritious for that long
Survivorship Curves - x axis is age, y is number of survivors
- Type I - human population, juvenile survival is high, older people die
- Type II - survivorship die at equal rates regardless of age
- Type III - die at a high rate as juveniles and then at much lower rates later in life
(monarchs)
Hypothetical life cycle diagram
- Individuals survive from year class to year class, and each non zero age contributes
progeny to the zero class just prior to the next census
-
- Ix = age specific survivorship (the probability of surviving from birth to age x)
- Survival probability
- mx= age specific fecundity (female births per female able to reproduce) - age specific
births
- Reproduction probability
- Can make a life table with x, lx and mx
-
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