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HMED 3075 (18)
Tobbell D (18)
Lecture 6

HMED 3075 Lecture 6: Nursing in the early 20th century
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4 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
History of Medicine
Course Code
HMED 3075
Professor
Tobbell D
Lecture
6

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HMED 3075 Lecture Notes 10/3/16
Gendered Technologies, Gendered Practice
Lecture: Nursing in the Early 20th Century
Reading: Margarete Sandelowski, “The physician’s eyes.”
Hospital Nursing before the Civil War
Nurse confined to hospital for both home and workplace-shared physical space with
patients
No formal training
Considered dregs of female society
Hospitals as sites of discipline
Paternalistic and hierarchical
Rigid rules for behavior to regulate daily life of patients and hospital workers
Civil War Nursing:
“invention” of the modern hospital depended on the invention of the trained nurse
Increasing numbers of native-born young rural women looking for work in the cities
(urbanization)
Nursing reform was to help reorder the hospital and provide suitable employment for
respectable women
Nursing was to become an “apprenticeship to duty”
oCharacter-behavior and demeanor (as much as bed-making skill) was to
distinguish the trained nurse
Nightingale Model of Reform
oSought to bring efficiency and moral order
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Description
HMED 3075 Lecture Notes 10/3/16 Gendered Technologies, Gendered Practice  Lecture: Nursing in the Early 20 Century  Reading: Margarete Sandelowski, “The physician’s eyes.” Hospital Nursing before the Civil War  Nurse confined to hospital for both home and workplace-shared physical space with patients  No formal training  Considered dregs of female society  Hospitals as sites of discipline  Paternalistic and hierarchical  Rigid rules for behavior to regulate daily life of patients and hospital workers Civil War Nursing:  “invention” of the modern hospital depended on the invention of the trained nurse  Increasing numbers of native-born young rural women looking for work in the cities (urbanization)  Nursing reform was to help reorder the hospital and provide suitable employment for respectable women  Nursing was to become an “apprenticeship to duty” o Character-behavior and demeanor (as much as bed-making skill) was to distinguish the trained nurse  Nightingale Model of Reform o Sought to bring efficiency and moral order  Emphasized hierarchy, duty, and discipline o Moral training and nursing education  Self-discipline  Absolute obedience  Technical competence (complete repetition until the task became automatic) o Female hierarchy with deference and loyalty to physician authority  Hospital Training Schools o First established in Boston, New Haven, and New York 1873 o Segregated training  African American women could only train at schools established at black hospitals  First schools established in Virginia in 1891 and Raleigh and Atlanta in 1896 o Hospitals required student nurses to provide labor  Admissions standards low enough to ensure sufficient hospital labor  Ideally “middle class” women between 20 and 35  Medical content provided by physicians: nursing content and moral education by nursing educators  The goals of nursing education
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