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Tobbell D (18)
Lecture 8

HMED 3075 Lecture 8: Technology and Disease Identity in Victorian America
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4 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
History of Medicine
Course Code
HMED 3075
Professor
Tobbell D
Lecture
8

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HMED 3075 Lecture Notes:
Mon 10/10 Technology and Disease Identity
Lecture: Gender, Disease, and Sexuality in Victorian America
Reading: Keith Wailoo, Chlorosis ‘eeered: Disease ad the Moral Maageet
of Aeria Woe.
Technologies of Blood Analysis c. late 19th century
Collecting blood for analysis:
o Locate blood vessel, puncture, and withdraw blood
o Prick a finger or earlobe
Counting blood: Hemocytometer c.1877
Smear blood on microscope slide
o Not too tick/thin, no contamination
o Skilled work
Hemocytometer
o Counting grid part of microscope slide
Count cells in a grid rather than entire slide
Attempt to correlate blood counts with clinical disease
Measuring Blood: Hemoglobinometer
Method of estimating amount of hemoglobin in the blood
Compared the color of blood with the color of a known standard
E.g. Gowers heogloioeter
Standard tube: glycerine jelly colored to correspond to 1% solution of normal blood
Second tube with graduated scale: fixed amount of sample blood; water slowly added to
dilute blood to the color of the standard
o If blood has high levels of HB, a lot of water needs to be added
o If low levels, little water added
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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com HMED 3075 Lecture Notes: Mon 10/10 Technology and Disease Identity  Lecture: Gender, Disease, and Sexuality in Victorian America  Reading: Keith Wailoo, ▯▯Chlorosis▯ ‘e▯e▯▯ered: Disease a▯d the Moral Ma▯age▯e▯t of A▯eri▯a▯ Wo▯e▯.▯ Technologies of Blood Analysis c. late 19 century  Collecting blood for analysis: o Locate blood vessel, puncture, and withdraw blood o Prick a finger or earlobe Counting blood: Hemocytometer c.1877  Smear blood on microscope slide o Not too tick/thin, no contamination o Skilled work  Hemocytometer o Counting grid part of microscope slide  Count cells in a grid rather than entire slide  Attempt to correlate blood counts with clinical disease Measuring Blood: Hemoglobinometer  Method of estimating amount of hemoglobin in the blood  Compared the color of blood with the color of a known standard  E.g. Gower▯s he▯o▯glo▯i▯o▯eter  Standard tube: glycerine jelly colored to correspond to 1% solution of normal blood  Second tube with graduated scale: fixed amount of sample blood; water slowly added to dilute blood to the color of the standard o If blood has high levels of HB, a lot of water needs to be added o If low levels, little water added find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Measuring Blood: Hematocrit:  Collect blood smaple  Spin sample in small tube using centrifuge  Compressed red blood cells at end of tube  Hematocrit o Measure red cells as % of total blood volume o Obtained in 10 mins o No expertise necessary only need centrifuge Identifying white blood cells:  Very difficult to identify white blood cells under the microscope o Far fewer than RBSs o No distinctive pigment o Several different types of white blood cells  Two factors led investigators to study white blood cells: o Pathologists: to understand the meaning of tissues that mde up the human body o Clinicians: could changes in the blood help identify tumors, blood diseases, etc. Identifying Pathological change: Differential blood count  Blood sample on microscope slide  Stain using triacid stain o First used by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 o Disting
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