KIN 3385 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Apoptosis, Calcitriol, Antigen

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2 Sep 2016
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Bioenergetics 17:15
Energy & Enzymes
Bioenergetics: the study of energy flow
Bio systems create order and maintain by finding free energy (ATP)
Exergonic vs. Endergonic
Endergonic you add energy
Exergonic you get more energy than necessary (Net)
Kinase trades a phosphate
3 Rules of Enzyme Functions
Speed up rate of chem. Reactions
Coenzymes (vitamins)
No net enzyme chem. Change
Binding of substrate to an enzyme’s activate site has chem. Specificity,
affinity, competition, and saturation when binding to protein
Enzyme lowers the activation energy of reactions
Oxidation-Reduction
Adding or subtraction electrons
Oxidizing adds, Reduction subtracts
Oxygen is an oxidizing agent
Takes of an electron
Hydrolysis-dehydrations
Add a water and subtract a water
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Cellular Respiration & Metabolism
ATP Production
Metabolic function and ATP production occur even without change in
substrate (Food)
Requires coupling of oxidation and reduction reactions
Anabolism
Pairs
Catabolism & Anabolism
ATP & ADP
Polymers & Monomers
Process of increasing structure or synthesis using the pairs
Metabolism
Pairs make up metabolism
Phosphorylation & De-Phosphorylation is a key mechanism of regulation of
metabolism
Kinases & Phosphates form enzymatic loop, provides link of regulation of
metabolism and level of ATP
Glycolysis (Anaerobic) (Cytosol)
2 ATPs input -> 4 ATPs output = 2 ATPs net & 2NADHs
Non efficient but very fast
Leads to Krebs Cycle
Krebs Cycle (Mitochondrial Matrix)
Formation of Acetyl CoA in mitochondria
Each time around produces 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP (ATP)
Each cycle 1 CO2 out
Each glucose yields 2 cycles
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Goal to generate NADH
Oxidative Phosphorylation (Mitochondrial Membrane)
NAD & FAD transport electrons/Hs to electron transport chain on
mitochondrial membrane
Regenerates ATP from ADP
NAD &FAD are coenzymes (Vitamin B3 & B2)
Cori Cycle
Lactic Acid produced by anaerobic respiration to liver
LDH converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid
Gluconeogenesis
Pyruvic acid converted to glucose-6-phosphate
Beta-Oxidation
Metabolism of fatty acids
2 carbons removed
Each 2 carbon acetyl CoA off, 1 NADH & FADH2 made
Amino Acid Metabolism
Nitrogen ingested as protein
Excess excreted as urea
Oxidative Deamination
Excess amino acids are eliminated
Amine group forms to keto acid and ammonia
Keto acid used for Kreb
Excreted as urea
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