1776: circulation of democratic ideas among masses contributes to american. 1790s: civic associations become a central mode of mass democratic action (ex: sons of liberty) 1828: andrew jackson is elected as 7th president of the united states. Democratic party becomes first mass-based party in history. Central points: democratic values and customs become increasingly tied into political institutions. Post-revoltuion france and the eclipse of aristocratic privilege. 1789-1799: french revolution: jacobins behead kind louis xvi and confiscate aristocratic and church property. 1799: napoleon stages a coup and comes to power, inaugurating the first french. 1814: napoleon invades russia and is eventually defeated. 1815: bourbon restoration (the line of kingship that ruled france prior to the revolution returns to power) 1830: july revolution: charles x (bourbon king) abdicates the throne to louis-phillipe (duke of orleans) in the july revolution. France, like america, was getting swept up in the modern, democratic revolution. Aristocratic society was being replaced by a liberal, democratic society.