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Lecture 4

PSYCH 2245 Lecture 4: Abpsych ch 4

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH-2245
Professor
Bruce

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Abnormal Psychology Unit 1 Learning Objectives
PSYCH 2245: Chapter 4: Research Methods
1. Describe the basic components of research, including the distinction between a
hypothesis and a testable hypothesis, independent and dependent variables, internal
and external validity,and statistical and clinical significance.
Hypothesis
Usually an educated guess that needs the support of tests and data to prove or
disprove
Testable Hypothesis
A testable hypothesis must be one in which all variables of the experiment are held
constant and the variable that must be tested is the only thing that changes; also,
the variable must be easily manipulated such as exposure to sunlight
Must phrase the hypothesis to indicate a test that must be done
“If the plant is placed in sunlight for a longer period of time, then it will grow”
Independent Variable
The variable in the experiment that is manipulated by the tester
Ex. The amount of exposure to sunlight
Dependent Variable
The variable that changes as a direct result of the independent variable
Ex. How tall the plant gets
Internal Validity
Refers to the extent that we are confident that the independent variable caused the
dependent variable to change
Confidence that the sunlight is the factor that changed the height of plant
Ways to promote internal validity
Control groups
A group that is the exact same as the experiment group except it isn’t
exposed to the independent variable
Strengthens internal validity by minimizing variables that could account for
changes in the experiment
Randomization
Use of random sampling
Eliminates most bias
Analogue Models
When the experimenter recreates an environment similar to the real world
in the lab so they can approximate real world conditions for their
experiment
External Validity
Refers to how well the study relates to other aspects of the real world outside of
the study
Ex. If a group of just teenagers was used, then the findings can’t be applied to
adults
Statistical Significance
When a statistical result is found, the probability of obtaining a result by chance is
very small
Clinical Significance
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Description
Abnormal Psychology Unit 1 Learning Objectives PSYCH 2245: Chapter 4: Research Methods 1. Describe the basic components of research, including the distinction between a hypothesis and a testable hypothesis, independent and dependent variables, internal and external validity,and statistical and clinical significance.  Hypothesis  Usually an educated guess that needs the support of tests and data to prove or disprove  Testable Hypothesis  A testable hypothesis must be one in which all variables of the experiment are held constant and the variable that must be tested is the only thing that changes; also, the variable must be easily manipulated such as exposure to sunlight  Must phrase the hypothesis to indicate a test that must be done  “If the plant is placed in sunlight for a longer period of time, then it will grow”  Independent Variable  The variable in the experiment that is manipulated by the tester  Ex. The amount of exposure to sunlight  Dependent Variable  The variable that changes as a direct result of the independent variable  Ex. How tall the plant gets  Internal Validity  Refers to the extent that we are confident that the independent variable caused the dependent variable to change  Confidence that the sunlight is the factor that changed the height of plant  Ways to promote internal validity  Control groups  A group that is the exact same as the experiment group except it isn’t exposed to the independent variable  Strengthens internal validity by minimizing variables that could account for changes in the experiment  Randomization  Use of random sampling  Eliminates most bias  Analogue Models  When the experimenter recreates an environment similar to the real world in the lab so they can approximate real world conditions for their experiment  External Validity  Refers to how well the study relates to other aspects of the real world outside of the study  Ex. If a group of just teenagers was used, then the findings can’t be applied to adults  Statistical Significance  When a statistical result is found, the probability of obtaining a result by chance is very small  Clinical Significance  Whether or not the statistical data means anything to the patient and whether it holds any meaning 2. Explain the aims and purposes of behavioral genetics, including the advantages and disadvantages of family, adoption, twin, and genetic linkage analysi
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