BIOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Unsaturated Fat, Semipermeable Membrane, Integral Membrane Protein

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9 Feb 2017
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BIO 101: Exam 1 Study Guide
Macromolecules
Macromolecules: a molecule containing a very large number of atoms,
such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
Lipids: Constitute the plasma membrane; Hydrophobic carbon chain with
oxygen double bonded to carbon bonded to oxygen; Functions outside of
the cell membrane; Examples: Oil, fat, wax, phospholipid, cholesterol,
hormones
Phospholipids: a lipid containing a phosphate group in its
molecule, e.g., lecithin.
Fatty Acids: a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a
terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in
fats and oils; Example: Palmitoleic acid
Saturated Fats: a type of fat containing a high proportion of
fatty acid molecules without double bonds, considered to be less
healthy in the diet than unsaturated fat.
Unsaturated Fats: An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in
which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid
chain
Trans Fats: are created in an industrial process that adds
hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. The
primary dietary source for trans fats in processed food is
"partially hydrogenated oils."
Triglycerides: an ester formed from glycerol and three fatty acid
groups. Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats
and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an
elevated risk of stroke.
Nucleic Acid: a complex organic substance present in living cells,
especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides
linked in a long chain.
DNA: Amino acid programmed by gene directing protein synthesis;
it is transcribed in RNA and RNA is translated into proteins
Carbohydrates: any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in
foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and
typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body;
2 monomers, monosaccharides, glucose, 6 carbon sugar; Stores energy;
Examples: Starch and sugar
Monomer: a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to
form a polymer. Ex: Monosaccharides, glycerol and fatty acids,
nucleotides, and amino acids.
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Polymer: Made by organisms made from building blocks (monomers) strung
together; Ex: Silk
Polysaccharide: a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen)
whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
Chitin:a fibrous substance consisting of polysaccharides and
forming the major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods
and the cell walls of fungi.
Glycogen:a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of
carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on
hydrolysis.
Monosaccharide: any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot
be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.
Disaccharide: any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two
monosaccharide residues. Ex: sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
Trisaccharide: any of the class of sugars whose molecules contain three
monosaccharide molecules; Ex: Maltotriose
Hydrophobic: tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
Hydrophilic: having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted
by water.
Dehydration synthesis reaction: to put together while losing water
Hydrolysis: the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with
water
Amino Acids
Peptide Bond: is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the
carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other
molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). This is a dehydration
synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually
occurs between amino acids.
Polypeptide: a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of
amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the
whole of) a protein molecule.
Dipeptides: a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues. 400 unique
ones
Tripeptides: is a peptide consisting of three amino acids joined by
peptide bonds. 8,000 unique ones
Proteins
Protein: any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist
of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids
and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as
structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen,
etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
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