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University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
HIST 135
Matthew Andrews

Cold War Politics -FDR to the US Ambassador to the USSR: “I can‟t take communism nor can you, but to cross this bridge I would hold hands with the devil.” (devil = Stalin) “Security Dilemmas” - If a country does something to make themselves feel safer, another country will feel threatened thus trying to make themselves stronger which in turn, makes the first country once again find a way to get stronger to make themselves feel safe. - Spirals into a never-ending cycle of mistrust and threats. (USA vs USSR) “Appeasement” - Before WW2, appeasement was a neutral term. - After WW2, it becomes the worst form of condemnation. - “The weak appease, the strong stand up.” The United Nations and “Collective Security” - U.N. Charter signed in January 1945 - U.N. General Assembly: Ambassadors of various countries meet - U.N. Security Council and “the Four Policemen”: United States (US & Canada), United Kingdom (Britain, colonized nations such as Africa, India, some Pacific Islands), Soviet Union ( Central Asia, Eurasia, Northeast Asia), China (Southeast Asia, some Pacific Islands) Yalta (1945) - Last meeting between Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt. - FDR allows Stalin to have his Eastern Sphere of Influence. Stalin - Created communist buffers to separate his SOI to the outside world - Post-War Poland‟s demand for a Democratic government was crushed by Stalin - Often used force to usurp present regimes and set up a communist government - Used puppet rulers in multiple “independent” countries to rule them in the shadows Churchill (1946) : An iron curtain (a divide) has been made. Democracy to the East, Totalitarianism to the West. George Kennan – Long Telegram (1946) – containment policy; prevent communism from spreading by meeting communist expansion with unyielding and overwhelming force. Nikolai Novikov - the Novikov Telegram (1946) – Soviet Response to the Long Telegram. - The United States has troops in other countries despite war having ended. This seems aggressive and militaristic. Solution? Marxist doctrine: Capitalism will eventually destroy itself and communism will be achieved. So, Novikov, a Marxist/Communist, essentially says that the US and Great Britain will eventually destroy itself so there is no need for counter force. The Truman Doctrine (1947) - Greek communists in Greece run Great Britain out because the war was too costly post-WW2. - America comes in and takes the place of Great Britain to oppose the spread of communism in Greece (which is a step closer to oil-rich Middle East) - “I believe that we must assist free people to work out their own destinies in their own way.” – Harry Truman (March 12, 1947) - Takes the side of the “Freedom fighters” - The Truman doctrine is the idea that the USA will oppose communism wherever it may spread especially if communism attempts to spread to vital geographic locations on the globe. Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program) of 1948 1. Humanitarian aid 2. Rebuild European economies with American goods 3. Stave off communism by stabilizing Europe Sept. 11, 2013 Topic: Securing the Iron Curtain Division of Germany, 1945 - Germany separated o East Germany – USSR o South-East Germany – United States o West Germany – Great Britain o South-West Germany – France - Britain and France want to create a new charter for a new German state. - Stalin is alarmed because Germany invaded Russia twice in his lifetime. Not wanting this to happen, he would start what is now called the Berlin “Blockade” in 1948. - Stalin wanted to separate his section of Germany away from the USA-owned land. This would cause greater tension between the USA and USSR - USA wanted to go to war, but Truman decided to do the “Berlin Airlift” (June 1948 – May 1949) where the USA drops supplies in Berlin so that the people may survive (500,000 tons of coal, etc.). - Eventually, Stalin gives in and stops his blockade. - Essentially, Berlin was the symbol of the Cold War until the Korean War. Cataclysmic 1949 - Communist Forces Victorious in China (1949) - The most populous nation in the world has turned Communist; alarms the USA. - USA detects radiation over atmosphere of Russia, immediately knows; USSR has tested their own successful atomic bomb in 1949. The Koreas - North Korea – Democratic People‟s Republic of Korea – Capital: Pyongyang - South Korea – Republic of Korea – Capital: Seoul th - Divided at the 38 parallel - Was supposed to be temporary but instead caused tensions about which government was the “true” government of Korea. 1950 in Korea - Kim Il Sung, the leader of the Communist government in North Korea, wanted to invade South Korea - Stalin gives approval for North Korea to invade the South, providing the North with weapons and supplies. What Stalin didn‟t know was how significant this action would be relative to the Cold War (how it affected the USA) - USA‟s official sanctions have been broken by North Korea which encourages USA (and United Nations) intervention in Korea. - The United Nation troops would push North Korean troops back into the North, but Chinese aid to North Korea would eventually push the USA troops back below the 38 parallel. - This war is a completely different kind of war: both sides had an atomic bomb. - Post-Korean War, the boundary was still the 38 parallel. - This war also set a new precedent in history: Weapons are made to be used. But the new bombs cannot be used. Because if we use our bomb, we‟re going to get bombed in return. The effects would be catastrophic. Hydrogen Bombs - Hydrogen bombs tested successfully by USA in 1952. The hydrogen bomb was then successfully tested in the USSR in 1953. BRAVO Test - 3x more powerful than the original hydrogen bomb. - 750x more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima - Dropped in the Pacific. - People in Japan were infected by radiation and one even died from radiation poisoning. MAD - Mutually Assured Destruction - Churchill: Equality of Annihilation United States, New President: Dwight Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) - The man who led American troops in WW2 and is “the man who conquered Europe.” USSR, new Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev (1953 – 1964) - Stalin dies in 1953 and Khrushchev takes over. - He is a reformer. He wants to remove the Stalinist shadow in the USSR - Khrushchev‟s 20 Party Congress Speech (February 1956) – he openly denounces Stalin to the shock of the USSR people. He wants to destroy the Stalinist culture. Called Stalin a sickly, suspicious, paranoid leader and a criminal. Listed Stalin‟s crimes. Said he would not be a criminal like Stalin. - Boleslaw Bierut, the Polish Communist Leader, had a heart attack when he heard Khrushchev‟s speech and died. - “Children of the 20 Party Congress” – EX: Alexander Solzhenitsyn: writes about the brutality of the USSR o They are people who wished that Khrushchev‟s speech would be the start of a new USSR. o Less brutal, less totalitarian. - People could now openly criticize the Stalinist era but they may still be exiled, fined, but no longer killed. - Khrushchev: Guns or butter? Do people want to use resources to make weapons, or do they want to use resources to make items and supplies that would benefit the people of the nation? o Stalin wanted guns. Defend the USSR through the military o Khrushchev wanted butter. Rejuvenate the Soviet economy and remedy the problems of the USSR “The Kitchen Debate” (1959) - Nikita Khrushchev and the U.S. VP Richard Nixon meet. - Nixon showcases the many luxuries that the American people had access to such as the oven and refrigerator. - Khrushchev was intoxicated by them and wanted to gain access to them for the USSR as well - Khrushchev also wanted to start loosening control over the other USSR states such as Hungary. Hungary 1956 - People demonstrated their hatred of Stalin in Hungary, spitting on his statue and taking it down, smashing it to pieces. - Hungary takes Khrushchev by his words and began pushing for political reform. - Hungarians especially wanted to remove the pro-Stalin dictator, Matyas Rakosi, “the Little Stalin,” and began to protest in 1956. - Imre Nagy (1896 – 1958) was the leader of the protests and wanted various freedoms for the Hungarian people. o Wanted the end of a single-party rule. Wanted multiple parties and open elections; Democracy in Hungary o They wanted to choose their own leaders Hungarian Revolution (1956) - Khrushchev believes Hungary went too far and sends in tanks and soldiers to stop the Hungarian protests. - 20,000 Hungarians are killed. - Despite being anti-Stalin, Khrushchev took a very Stalinist approach to putting down protests. - Imre Nagy is imprisoned and shortly thereafter, executed. Prague Spring (1968) - Essentially a repeat of what happened in Hungary. - Khrushchev sends in forces to destroy the independence movement of Czechoslovakia Berlin Wall Erected in 1961 - Divided East Berlin from West Berlin. - Why: the “Brain Drain” – Many intellectuals left the East to go to the West because it benefited them. To prevent this, the Berlin wall was made. - Khrushchev calls the Berlin wall the “Anti-Fascist Defensive Rampart” John F. Kennedy Ronald Reagan “Ich bin ein Berliner” (1963) “Tear down this wall” (1989) Sept. 16, 2013 Uncle Sam in Latin America - Guatemala th o Colonized by Spain in the 16 century o Populated by the indigenous people (the Maya) o Spain leaves Guatemala in the 1820s o Ladinos were also in Guatemala (Ladinos = Spanish descendants) o Ladinos were the wealthiest, felt superior, control plantations, oversee the Mayas who worked in the plantations, control govt. etc. o Ladinos were the ruling class, Mayas were the lesser, poorer class - Jorge Ubico o Guatemalan President (1931 – 1944) - Ladino o Sold Guatemalan land to American companies  Sold the most land to United Fruit Company  United Fruit Company was the largest land owner in Guatemala (about 50% of good land)  Called the “Banana Republic”  Stratified system: Few at the top who own the land and reap the profits, majority of people work on the plantations barely getting by - Jacobo Arbenz o Guatemalan President (1951 – 1954) - Ladino o Elected democratically by the people after the overthrowing of Jorge Ubico o Was a visionary: Maya people are treated unfairly, wants to change Guatemala o Land Reform Act (1952): Calls for the seizure of land from the largest land-owning families of Guatemala and redistribute the land to the Guatemalan people. [He even seized some of his own land and distributed to the people] o The LRA also begins taking the UFC-owned land and offers their fair tax shares, but the UFC complains that they are not getting a good deal. o Takes their complaint to the President, Eisenhower. Duck Test - “Suppose you see a bird walking around in a farm yard. The bird has no label that says duck. But the bird certainly looks like a duck. Also, he goes to the pond and you notice that he swims like a duck. Then he opens his beak and quacks like a duck. Well, by this time you have probably reached the conclusion that the bird is a duck, whether he is wearing a label or not.” CIA-Trained Guatemalan Rebels - The USA engineers a plan to get rid of Arbenz. - They train Guatemalan rebels (people [ladinos] who had their land seized by Arbenz and were dissatisfied) and provided supplies for their coup. - People eventually realize that if Arbenz is not dethroned, the USA will eventually just invade. - In 1954, Arbenz is removed from office. Castillo Armas - Guatemalan President (1954 – 1957) - CIA hand-chose Castillo Armas to serve as the Guatemalan President. - Took the land that was redistributed to the Guatemalan people and gave it back to the ladinos and more importantly, the United Fruit Company. - “the most monstrous act of robbery ever perpetuated by any ruler in our history.” – Castillo Armas on Arbenz‟s Land Reform Act - Pablo Neruda, “On Guatemala” (1971), “I saw the rose bloom in Guatemala, I saw the poor man‟s land defended, and justice arrive to every mouth…” – Arbenz‟s Land Reform Act Cuba Fulgencio Batista - Cuban President (1952 – 1959) - Business partners with the American mafia - Mafia owns casinos and hotels in Cuba Fidel Castro and the “Humanist” Cuban Revolution (1959) - At this time, he had no relation to the communists and referred to himself as a “humanist,” someone who has the best interest in mind for the Cuban people - Batista is thrown out of Cuba and Fidel Castro takes over. - Fidel Castro seizes the land of the large landowners as well as large sugar companies in the USA and redistributed the land to the Cuban people. - Very similar to Arbenz of Guatemala and once again duck tested as a communist Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy (1961 – 1963) - Once again plotted a coup to get rid of Castro just like what happened to Arbenz in Guatemala - U.S. trained rebels were captured at the Bay of Pigs (1961) and easily routed o Poorly planned invasion, a total failure. o Worldwide condemnation for what was done to Cuba - Castro is weary of the United States because they just tried to invade Cuba. - Because of this, Castro allies himself with the Soviet Union, the direct opposition of the USA. Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) - Khrushchev is excited by a communist revolution happening all by itself without any interference. o Wants to show support for Cuba and plans to move nuclear warheads in Cuba o Khrushchev planned to use the nuclear warheads as a warning to prevent any kind of U.S. interference in Cuba o Paralleled what happened earlier in history when the U.S. put nuclear warheads in Turkey to ward off communist expansion. - “Why not throw a hedgehog at Uncle Sam‟s pants?” – Nikita Khrushchev - The U.S. is alarmed and blockades Cuba, telling the USSR to “lay off” and remove the missiles immediately. - Khrushchev on the U.S. Naval Blockade: “an act of aggression propelling humankind into the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war.” o Both the USA and the USSR are preparing their nukes to be launched at any given moment. o The world braces for a nuclear war, but both sides do not want war. Why? Because nuclear war is suicide. - Eventually, the USSR backs out but only once the USA openly announced that they will never again invade Cuba or threaten the Cubans. o Privately, the Presidents of both nations also negotiated the removal of nuclear warheads in Greece and Turkey and other locations with a nuke close to the USSR. Legacies of the Cuban Missile Crisis - Because of the CMC, there is a bona fide Anti-Nuke Movement - Both Khrushchev and Kennedy meet and find out that they are not so different o Neither want to destroy the other or start a world war o Began signing treaties  Limited the size of missiles, the number of missiles, agreed to keep technological advancements to themselves [Nonproliferation Treaty] to prevent other nations from gaining access to their weapons.  Even had a treaty which stated that neither nation will build defenses to each other‟s nukes. - Moscow-Washington Hotline o Phone that directly connected the President of the USA to the President of the USSR Sept. 18, 2013 - “Fish in a Revolutionary Sea.” – Mao Zedong on revolutions around the globe - “A Tidal Wave of Color” – Malcom X - “The two main power blocs are struggling for possession of the third world.” / “Like the third estate, the Third World is nothing, and wants to be something.” – Alfred Sauvy (1952) 1 World – USA / Great Britain / France / Spain / Portugal / Scandinavia 2 World – Socialist countries such as Russia and Poland 3 World – Under-developed countries, essentially everyone else who is not the USA 1945 – World War II ends. - Western nations desperately want to hold on to their colonial possessions. o After 1945, there was much nationalistic fervor and movement for independence. Indian Independence - The British East India Company dominated much of India. o In 1858, the British crown formally takes over India  The “Raj” (1858 – 1947) – Time under British rule, called the Crown Jewel of Britain  1947 – India gains independence  The Indian market provides many products that enrich the British market.  “As long as we rule India, we are the greatest power in the world. If we lose it, we shall drop straightaway to a third rate power.” – Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India o British relied on 500 Indian officials to keep India under control  These Indians wanted to get some social standing and some money behind their service. o Indian National Congress (1885)  “Indian” – Congregation of educated, upper caste peoples who considered themselves “Indians” and spoke English.  “National” – Nationalism, a European concept of Pride for one‟s nation. Indians take that concept and want a national Indian nation.  The British feel uncomfortable about this Congress and thus prepares the “Muslim League” (1906)  The Muslim League tries to divide the Indian people, destroying the image of a unified “Indian.”  Your religion makes you different. o Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.  Mohandas Gandhi (1869 – 1948) – Used a radical system of protest.  From a merchant family  Studied law in London  Practiced law in South Africa which had a large population of Indian workers o Made a name for himself by struggling for the Indian workers‟ rights in South Africa  Returned to India in 1915 – Throws off his Western garb and then begins to dress himself as a common peasant o Cultural statement: Throw off his British background, says “I am Indian.”  “Mahatma” - Protector of the common people  Taught “Satyagraha” – Change through peaceful means o Boycott British made goods  Cotton goes to Britain, becomes clothing, Indians buy clothing.  Gandhi tells Indians to make their own clothing instead. - Nonviolence o Very original o Throughout history, many rulers have turned to violence. o Nonviolence is very practical o Good way to obtain power, but also to keep power - “Mobocracy” o Ruled by the mob o Gandhi feared that if India gained independence through violence, it will be nigh impossible to control India‟s vie for power. o Thus, Gandhi uses a nonviolent form of protest which will unify the people. Frantz Fanon (1925 – 1961) Martinique, Algeria - Argued that violence is a necessity for national unity - Needed violence to decolonize the minds of the colonized people o Only way to free themselves is to commit violence against those who committed violence against them. India after World War II - Indian Soldiers in World War II - Britain is devastated after World War II o Realizes that they must leave India o Gives India independence to forestall a violent revolution Jawaharlal Nehru Mohammad Ali Jinnah Indian National Congress Muslim League Jinnah knows that if there is only ONE whole India, the Muslims will be horribly outnumbered so decides there should be one Muslim state as well as an Indian State. - Nehru refuses Jinnah‟s request o Leads to Direct Action Day (16 August 1946)  Violence from both sides on Direct Action Day  Over 4000 dead in Calcutta - Great Britain says, “We‟re leaving in 1947.” o Lord Mountbatten, British Viceroy at that time before the British leave, discusses the Partition of India (15 August 1947) with the INC and ML o Two new nations are born: India and Pakistan (East and West)  East India would later become Bangladesh  Pakistan means “Land of the pure” – Muslim nation “Toba Tek Singh” (1955) – Sadat Hasan Manto - Criticism of the partition. - Where are we? I was in India, but now it‟s Pakistan? - People were forced to move based on their religions. o Hindus to India, Muslims to Pakistan - Set in a lunatic asylum To Hate Like This Is to Be Happy Forever (2006) – Will Blythe - Your love for UNC Basketball comes partly from the hatred of Duke Basketball. o You like Indians because you hate Pakistanis o You like Pakistanis because you hate Indians o Pakistanis hated Indians and vice versa  Demonstrated their identity o Overnight, Hindus and Muslims were driven out of their homes into their new respective countries.  Over 13 million people lost their homes and were chased out  Some lost their lives to violence o Ghost trains: trains that went between Pakistan and India; Hindus would place dead bodies of Muslims on the train and send them to Pakistan and Muslims would send dead bodies of Hindus to India o Assassination of Gandhi (January 30, 1948)  Assassinated by a fellow Hindu only because he did not have enough hatred for Pakistan and Muslims. September 23, 2013 USA has not recognized North Korea or Palestine China and Mao - Mao Zedong establishes the People‟s Republic of China in Tiananmen Square (October 1, 1949) – Tiananmen means “Gate of Heavenly Peace” - Tiananmen Square (1949 – 1989) - The “Central Kingdom” – Zhong (jhong) + guo (goo-oh) = China ( zhong guo) o Thought themselves to be the center of the world  Isolationism  Great Wall of China – built to keep marauders out o Qing (Manchu) Dynasty (1644 – 1912)  Imperialism leads to the downfall of the dynasty - Chinese Opium o British brought in opium extracted from poppy plants in India and sold the opium to the Chinese people o China bans the import of opium  Leads to the Opium Wars (1856 – 1860  Britain wins the Opium Wars o Imperial Powers (Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan) carve up China despite Chinese protest o Mao Zedong frees China from imperialism which is why he is treated like a god in China (which may be the best thing he has done) o Qing dynasty falls in 1912 and leads to the Chinese Civil War - Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists versus Mao Zedong and the Communists o Kai-shek wants to ally himself with the West. o Mao allies himself with the Soviet Union. o Mao Zedong and the Communists defeat Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists who are chased out of China to Taiwan where they set up their own government. o The People‟s Republic of China was not officially recognized until 1979 and China was not allowed to join the United Nations until 1971. - Mao sends Chinese troops to North Korea to aid them against the USA and the South Koreans - Deng Xiaoping and the “Modernizers” o Want to change China into a modern, industrial nation o USA gives China plenty of money to help modernize the country o Mao believes that the Modernizers are making a mistake by ignoring the peasants of the country  Mao seizes land and redistributes to the people  Anti-Rightist Campaign o People who had connections with the West were arrested and their land was taken to be redistributed.  “Struggle Sessions” – Serfs and peasants are given a chance to slap or spit on the face of the exploiters (wealthy land owners) or use other forms of showing grievance at their treatment (defecate in a cup, make them eat it) - Deng and the “Modernizers” versus Mao and the “Maoists” o Mao believes that a revolutionary country like China needs to remain in a constant state of rebellion / revolution.  “A little rebellion now and then is a good thing, … It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government.” – Thomas Jefferson (1787) o Deng believes that China needs to modernize and remain constant - Hundred Flowers Campaign (1956) o “Let a hundred flowers blossom, let a hundred schools of thought contend.” o Mao allowed intellectuals to constructively criticize the Chinese government so as to know how to make the Communist government better. o People would take Mao‟s word and begin having sessions to critique the Chinese government and begin making suggestions. o Mao, like Khrushchev, began seeing that things were being taken too far.  Anyone who criticized Mao were seized, sent to labor camps, lost their homes and property - Great Leap Forward (1958) o “Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand.” – Mao Zedong st o One of the most astounding moments of the 21 century  Almost leads to the complete collapse of China o People divided into “communes.”  People‟s Communes (Production Brigades) o Different villages and their land were collectivized into a single commune and turned their land into collectivized property.  Some Communes had over 30,000 people.  People ate in Common Spaces, the Brigade members, child care was for communal  All done to bring about equality in China by Mao  Mao tried to turn the peasants into industrialists  Make steel out in the country  “Backyard Furnaces” o Anything that was metal was thrown into the furnace such as rakes or shovels o The steel that came out of the furnaces were absolutely useless and was a waste of money, time and effort  Communes disrupted economic growth but were expected to growth 10 tons of grain. o Punished if not met and so people lied about meeting the 10 ton expectation  Only grew 5 tons, half of 10 = 5. 0 tons of grain for the country people = starvation. - The Great Sparrow Campaign o “Everyone come and fight sparrows”  Insects did more damage than the sparrows ever did  Many droughts - The “Great Famine” o “Three years of natural disasters” o Absolutely nothing to eat for three years  Some ate tree bark for sustenance The Great Leap Forward was one of history‟s most astounding calamities - Never before has so many people died because of good intentions - “I am a complete outsider when it comes to economic construction, and I understand nothing about industrial planning.” – Mao Zedong - After 1961, Mao no longer took an active part in the Chinese government The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966 – 1970) - Mao returns in 1961 - “Criticize the old world and build a new world with Mao Zedong Thought as a weapon.” September 25, 2013 - Mao‟s “Little Red Book” o Filled with Mao‟s quotes o Purpose: to educate the young and uneducated about the Communist party o Mao encouraged students to memorize the contents of the book o You can now interpret Communism yourself, not have the leaders tell you o Demonstrate their revolutionary zeal by memorizing the book - Red Guards o Filled with grade students all the way to college students  They rebelled and hated all things Western  Western clothing, hairstyles, sports (except Basketball because Mao loved basketball) were abolished o High ranking officials and others such as college professors were ridiculed for not following Mao‟s Red Book. - Sent-Down Generation - Mao dies in 1976 – a moment of great trauma in China o To some, a moment of relief Deng Xiaoping - Praised Mao for his early rule but condemned Mao in the 1960 sand 1970s - “It doesn‟t matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice.” - 1978 – private enterprise is legalized in China - “Socialism with Chinese characteristics” “Red Hat Companies” - Pursue profits like America o Made tons of profit and wealth Communist Party - With the Socialism with Chinese characteristics, you cannot question the Communist party. - The Communist party manages to incorporate capitalism without democracy. - Capitalism can be argued to actually have made the Communist party stronger in China Hu Yaobang (Died in April 15, 1989) - Chinese students began marching in his memory - Millions of people storm into Tiananmen Square (May-June 1989) and demand for the Communist party to be ended - Many protested about the current political system - “Have you eaten?” is a form of greeting in China o Symbolizes the importance of food and references a time of famine for the Chinese Tiananmen Square of May-June 1989 June 4, 1989 - Protesters at Tiananmen Square o Communist has had enough, sends in troops to stop the protests - Continued on into June 5, 1989 - Death toll – ranges from hundreds to thousands of Chinese people Cult of Mao - There is a whole industry based on Mao‟s image - Mao badges (popular doing the cultural revolution) - Mao badge and pin and a Little Red Book o Banned badges made of aluminum to make aircrafts out of aluminum o The badges shot up in value and has now become an industry of some sort - Mao‟s Mausoleum September 30, 2013 Vietnam and War - South Vietnam General Nguyen Ngoe Loan executes a Viet Cong Prisoner in Saigon (1968) - The Vietnam War is the spark for the first global anti-war movement - Hearts and Minds (1974) – Anti-war Documentary U.S. - U.S. General - William Westmoreland - U.S. President – Richard Nixon French Southeast Asia - French Rulers with Vietnamese collaborators - Taxed the Vietnamese people after taking the land from them - Collaborators joined parts of the French d Ho Chi Minh (1890 – 1969) - Enemy of the French and later the Americans - Believes that Vietnam should be independent - Ho Chi Minh in Paris (1919) learns about Marxism - Ho Chi Minh is not a Communist. He is foremost a nationalist - Believes that Communism is the way to transform Vietnam into a self- sustaining nation The chance - During World War II, Japan invades Vietnam and the French leave. - Ho Chi Minh founds the “League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Minh) o “United Front” o Overall goal is independence, not Communism. o Communism is the way to achieve independence‟ - “Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam” (Sept. 1945) France and Vietnam - France still wants Vietnam and its natural resources - France wants to “regain” national powers and the way to do it is to reclaim your lost territories First Indochina War (1946 – 1954) - Vietnam vs. France after France attempts to reclaim Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh is extremely popular in Vietnam, especially in the North, - Fighting for control over their lives, possession, country, etc. - France calls it the “Dirty War” – Why are we here? Why aren‟t we back at France? Dien Bien Phu - Vietnamese troops absolutely destroy French troops in May 1954. - Proved that the European powers are not invulnerable and can be defeated - France evacuates from Vietnam in 1954. Geneva Convention (1954) - “Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Vietnam” - Separate Vietnam into two partitions, North and South Vietnam  Two separate ideological groups (one was aligned with the Americans and France, the other was with Communism) - Two year cooling period until 1956. - National Election in 1956 – Whoever wins would become the leader of a reunified Vietnam The United States and Vietnam - Americans brought French soldiers to Vietnam - Gave money and supplies to French to fight in Vietnam - Pumped over $3B into the French war effort in Vietnam o Keep a Cold War ally happy, but also because Ho Chi Minh is a Communist and therefore must be resisted o Ho Chi Minh, however, even thought of himself a possible ally of the United States but because he called himself a Communist, was not favored by the USA The Two Leaders: Ho Chi Min (North Vietnam) and Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) October 2, 2013 Geneva Convention (1954) – Agreement on the cessation of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh – Communist, Buddhist – Buddhism is the religion of the peasants (of the masses) Ngo Dinh Diem – Christian (Catholic), USA-educated, anti-Communist The election in 1956 was rigged. - Ngo Dinh Diem wins 98% of the votes - Diem wins over 130% of the urban popular vote which is impossible. Viet Nam Cong-San (Viet Cong) – AKA “The National Front” - In response to the rigged election, Minh sends the Viet Cong. - The USA sends in troops to contain Communist expansion. - Minh and the Viet Cong fight for national independence, a Vietnam free of French, USA, and other outside influence. - Diem‟s policies were heavily protested. o Buddhist monks began to burn themselves in public protest in an act of self-immolation against Diem‟s policies.  Diem called these “barbecues” and disparaged the monks. Dwight Eisenhower and the “Domino Theory” - Eisenhower meets Diem in 1957. - Eisenhower supports Diem and supplies him with weapons and money. - Domino Theory: These small nations are like dominos. If one nation (domino) falls, the other nations will fall as well in a domino effect. America begins sending in American men to Vietnam - American Military “Advisors” in South Vietnam encourage people to overthrow Diem - Diem was captured and executed on November 1, 1963 in the back of a Jeep. Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam - Johnson is the one who really escalates America‟s involvement in Vietnam - He is the one who sends troops to Vietnam - U.S. Marines land in Da Nang (March 9, 1965) 1966 – Vietnam War was very popular during this time; people supported this way. 1967 – People still supported the war. 1968 – Viet Cong “Tet Offensive” (January 1968) - The Vietnamese attacked every United States military base in South Vietnam at the same time. o Does not end the Vietnam War and is eventually repelled. - The ferocity of the attack surprises Americans because they thought it would be an easy war, but suddenly, public opinion changes. One-Year Policy – Soldiers drafted to go to Vietnam for one year - People focused on trying to survive, not end the war because it is only 1 year. - If it was until the end of the war, people would have fought much harder. Anti-American Rally (Peking, China) (1965) - China was an ally of North Vietnam London, England - People were protesting America‟s involvement in Vietnam. Sydney, Australia - “Resist the draft!” New Zealand Anti-War Rally - Demanding that America end the Vietnam War. USA - Colleges, even UNC, showing public protests and marches for America to leave Vietnam. “Stop the Draft Week” – Oakland, CA (October 1967) - Prevent people from being drafted so as to physically prevent the USA from waging war. CA Governor Ronald Reagan on the Vietnam protests: - “Sex, drugs, and treason” - People are allowed to voice their opinions or protests, but not publicly riot and cause chaos. Richard Nixon becomes President and becomes involved in Vietnam - “Jugular Diplomacy” – Cut off the North Vietnamese supply line - Bombing and Invasion of Cambodia (1969 – 1970) October 7, 2013 African Nationalism or European Decolonization? - Did Europe begin decolonizing and releasing their colonies or did African nationalism force them to do it? - Both. o Nationalist protests raised the costs of sustainability for the Europeans who engaged in cost-benefit analyses of their colonies. o “Neocolonialism”: continued, now more indirect, influence of European powers over African affairs  African countries could become independent by name, but there was a lot of resource extraction and political influence by the Europeans Different Paths to Independence - In places without many colonists or significant capitalist enterprises, vs. o West Africa  Taxed by Europeans  Forced Africans to grow crops that were internationally demanded - In places where there were settler populations and/ or lucrative, foreign-owned businesses. o South Africa o Algeria o Kenya o Zimbabwe Gold Coast/ Ghana - 1948 – demonstrations - Convention People‟s Party (CPP) - 1951 – Kwame Nkrumah became Leader of Government Business - 1954 – Nkrumah became Prime Minister - 1957 – Independence of Ghana Kenya - State of Emergency, 1952 – 1956 - Guerrilla attacks vs. bombing, mass arrests, concentrated villages - Land and Freedom Army (“Mau Mau”) - Leader: Jomo Kenyatta - 100 Europeans killed - 20,000 – 50,000 Africans killed, including some 2,000 Kikuyu loyalists - 80,000 Kikuyu in detention camps - More than 1 million Kikuyu in concentrated villages October 14, 2013 Decolonization - Hearts of Darkness: The Congo - Black African Agriculture – Placid independence (like Ghana) - White Settler Agriculture – White settlers in a country made transitions difficult and sometimes bloody (like Kenya) - Mining companies Congo - Congo Free State (1884 – 1908) - Belgian Congo (1908 – 1960) - No one suffered more than the Congolese during colonization King Leopold II of Belgium (1865 – 1909) - Claims everything he had done was for Christianity and spreading the principles and ideals of Christianity, but in reality, it was to get rich by extracting the resources of Congo - Congolese Rubber Tapper – Rubber becomes a very important resource o Belgians went to extremes to obtain rubber  Seize children; if father does not bring back rubber, cuts off child‟s hands and feet  Rape wives, stop when a certain amount of rubber is brought to them  10 million people died as a result of Belgian cruelty o King Leopold makes 1 billion dollars in today‟s currency through this rubber industry o The Congolese despise the Belgians for obvious reasons - Some Congolese worked in Belgian controlled mines (silver, copper, gold, diamond, etc.) for their entire lives trying to pay off taxes that were enforced on them by the Belgians - Belgians in the Congo – they are determined to hold onto Congo - Only 36 college graduates out of 15 million from the Congo - Only 3 native Africans held any high positions in Congo Congolese independence - 1950s – Congolese people begin protesting for more rights, not necessarily independence - 1957 – Congolese people are allowed to vote for the first time - Patrice Lumumba and the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) – called for a unified Congolese political party - Belgian Congo Conference (January 1960) – African people did not even come to the conference for independence but the Belgians planned to allow the Congolese people to gain independence on June 30, 1960 (but they are devious and diabolical) Neo-Colonialism - Kwame Nkrumah: Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism (1965) - King Baudouin in the Congo (June 30, 1960) - Moise Tshombe and Katanga Secession o Asked USA to help quell the events prior to the Katanga Secession o USA does not want to ally herself with someone who wants to boost up the prices of resources o Tshombe goes to the Soviet Union after the USA rejects to help Kenya and the USA brands him as a Communist - General Joseph Mobutu o Paid by the CIA to capture Lumumba and succeeds in doing so o Lumumba was one of the educated Congolese people  January of 1961 – assassination of Lumumba  Malcom X refers to Lumumba as the greatest African man in history o Mobutu Seo Seko  Renames the Congo as Zaire and rules for 32 years  “kleptocracy”: rules by thieves – Stole so much money from the Congolese people that the term „kleptocracy‟ was made  Murdered his political opponents  USA makes deals with Zaire and Mobutu in return for Uranium  Dies in 1987  The Congo is now referred as the Democratic Republic of the Congo today  Soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  Warlords fighting over land and property Who do we blame? - King Leopold or Mobutu or…? October 16, 2013 Israel-Palestine: A Primer 1948 - Formation of a new Israeli state: Israel - First Arab-Israeli War Arab Markets in Palestine (1920) European Jewish Families (1932) - Jews begin to try to reclaim Jerusalem o Belonged to their ancestors o The only place that could belong to the Jews - Theodore Herzl (1860 – 1904) o Father of modern “Zionism”  Zionism: a political idea that Jews need to have their own state  Responding to Jewish victims and Jewish treatment in Europe  Jewish victims of Russian Pogrom (1903)  “… where we can have hooked noses, black or red beards, and bandy legs, without being despised for it… where we can die tranquilly… where we shall live at peace with the world… where the derisive cry „Jew!‟ may become an honorable appellation, like German, Englishman, Frenchman –in short, like that of all civilized people.” – Theodore Herzl  Need a Jewish state to free the Jews from stereotypes, bias, and mistreatment of Jews  Possible homelands: Uganda, Cyprus, Palestine  Palestine is chosen for its historical importance for the Jews  The problem: people are still there  The good part: Palestine was not „Palestine‟ yet. It was just land that was part of the Ottoman Empire  Palestine under the Ottomans (1878): o 90% Arab/ Muslim o 9% Christian o 1% Jewish  British Mandate of Palestine – British controlled Palestine at the beginning of World War I  Palestine was a liability for the British  Growing tensions between Jews and Arabs  80,000 Jews in Palestine  Very influential Jewish population in Europe during World War I time  Influenced Britain o British Lord Balfour - “The Balfour Declaration” (1917) o “His Majesty‟s government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people… it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine…” - Great Arab Rebellion (1935 – 1939) o Britain makes the Peel Commission and the “Two State Solution” (1937) to stop the fighting between Jews and Arabs  “Half a loaf of bread is better than no bread at all”  Jerusalem is culturally very important for Jews, Christians, and Muslims  This specific divide was thought to be very unfair for the Palestinians because Jews only composed 10% of the population  The Arab population want a single state where a majority rules  Arabs reject the Peel Commission - World War II changes everything o World War II is essentially one massive pogrom against the Jews  Under Adolf Hitler, Jews lost human rights, executed, etc.  The Holocaust o Because of World War II, the Jews began to demand for a safe haven, a state that belongs to the Jews.  Americans / Europeans refused to accept refugee Jews. They had nowhere to go o Global leaders began to support Zionists and the United States begins to back Israel o USS Exodus  A ship that moved millions of Jews to Palestine  Palestinians use the same argument as before: “Why does the Jewish home have to be Palestine? It can be anywhere.” o Britain, due to problems in India, leave Palestine and give control of Palestine over to the United Nations o United Nations Partition Plan (1947)  The partition is significantly in favor of the Jews  Jews has the majority of the land (54%) and Arabs have 46% of the land.  Influenced by the Holocaust  Jewish sympathizers o Jews vs. Palestinians  Palestinians want to fight? Zionists want to fight back.  Even Jews that survived the Holocaust took up arms o David Ben-Gurion announces the creation of Israel (May 14, 1948)  “The boundaries of the state [Israel] will not be determined by UN resolution, but by the force of arms.” – David Ben-Gurion (1948) o Israel is not formally recognized by the Palestinians  Leads to the First Arab-Israeli War in 1948 o First Arab-Israeli War (1948)  “War of Independence”  The “Nakba” (The Catastrophe)  Israel completely routs the Palestinians  Palestinian war refugees forced to flee their homes  Israelis want to keep the land that was taken from the Arabs  UN Resolution 194  UN says that Arabs still had a right to return to their homes  Israel says that Arabs do not have that right  Israel‟s “Law of Return” (1949) o “Anyone who has a Jewish ancestry has a right to return to Israel and become an Israeli citizen.” o Palestinian Arab born in Jerusalem cannot return to Palestine, but an American Jew born in the USA can “return” to Palestine. o Ironic, paradoxical  To this day, Palestine is still not recognized a nation  United States stands between Palestine and national recognition o USA backs Israel o Palestine directs anger to Israel and by extension, the United States o USA gives more money to Israel than any other nation every year (3 Billion dollars / $3,000,000,000)  Israel does not have to document what it does with its money.  Israel recently made a wall that passed through Palestinian land to keep Palestinians away from Jews.  Unfavored by both Jews and Arabs October 21, 2013 Egypt and Non-Alignment - Smaller nations have a lot of powers themselves. They no longer have to be „instruments‟ to be used, but „actors‟ that influence the field of play. - Smaller nations can play off the two superpowers o What can you (Soviets) give me (small nation) that the USA can‟t? Non-Alignment - Non-Alignment: The idea of staying neutral and not allying with either the USA or the USSR. It is possible to extract concessions from both nations by tilting to either side. - Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser – the most dominant political figure in the Middle East (Egypt) who practiced non-alignment. Britain and Egypt - British are in Egypt because of its… o Textiles o Position: Suez Canal connects Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea  Suez Canal (1869): 120 miles long, man-made canal – Universal Suez Canal Company  Makes trade much more lucrative by quickening travels  Cut through Suez Canal  immediately in African, Chinese, trading territory  “The Jugular Vein of Empire” – the Suez Canal is what allows the British Empire to prosper Egyptian Revolution of 1952 - King Farouk overthrown o King Farouk: King of Egypt aligned with the British - Egyptian Revolution of 2011 o “Egyptians don‟t want Mubarak” – President Mubarak is overthrown much the same way as Farouk was in 1952 - Republic of Egypt is made - Britain agrees to move out of Egypt, but makes one condition o Condition: If the Suez Canal is ever threatened, we will return. „The canal is for everyone.‟  The canal is very important for trade - Nasser and the Free Officers Movement - Free Officers Movement: Group that resents and opposes British influence in Egypt o Resents Farouk for his neutral stance during the creation of Israel to the North and his British alignment - Nasser: Machiavellian – Gets rid of all of his possible opposition o Consolidate his power o Removed all the Egyptian Communists o Represses the „Muslim Brotherhood‟ that is calling for the 1952 Revolution to be more Islamic and the government should be ruled by Islamic principles o The Muslim Brotherhood (established 1928)  Nasser is too secular; not Islamic enough  Give to the poor, run hospitals in the Cairo ghettos  Many people were loyal to the Muslim Brotherhood  Nasser sees the Muslim Brotherhood as a threat  Begins to imprison members of the Muslim Brotherhood  Muslim Brotherhood retaliates by attempting to assassinate Nesser but fails  “Let them kill Nasser. What is Nasser but one among many? My fellow countrymen, stay where you are. I am not dead, I am alive, and even if I die all of you is Gamal Abdel Nasser.”  Sayyid Qutb (executed 1966)  Anti-Western thought in the Middle East can be traced back to Qutb.  Mohamed Morsi (member of the Muslim Brotherhood) is removed from office July 2013 “Pan Arabism” - Nasser promotes himself as the leader of the Arab world - Idea that the Arab people are linked by a share of language, religion (Islam), being Arabic, and humiliated by the creation of the nation of Israel. - Secular Pan Arabism – Nasser is a secular leader leading a secular revolution o Nasser focuses on economic development (use Middle Eastern oil) or rid of imperialist influence. o America is afraid that the Middle East may align with the Soviets and provide them with a steady source of oil - Aswan High Dam o A dam that is constructed on the Northern Nile River to control the flooding of the Nile River o Nasser believes that this will bring Egypt into the modern age o America wants to keep Nasser happy so the United States offers to help fund the construction of the dam o Nasser obtains weapons from the Soviet Union (tilting to either side for concessions)  America finds this neutrality (non-alignment) to be a problem and demands Nasser admit to either being 100% for, or 100% against the USA  Nasser does not admit, calls himself neutral. o USA cuts funding on the dam in the last stages of the construction, preventing its completion  Leads to the Suez Crisis (1956) – Nasser seizes the Suez Canal in retaliation for the USA stopping their funding. - Suez Crisis of 1956 o Britain and France are angered by the seizing of the Suez Canal  Retreats their engineers and employees out of Egypt  Believed Egypt would not be able to capably run the canal  Turns out Egyptian system is more efficient and the Canal became more profitable under Egyptian command  Britain/France/Israel make a plan together under the goal of taking back the Suez Canal  “We shall never have a better pretext for intervention against [Nasser] than we have now.” – British Prime Minister Anthony Eden (1956)  Anthony Eden compares Nasser to Hitler o Have to directly oppose and stand up against Nasser - Israel/Britain/France in Egypt o Israeli tanks in Egypt o Bombing of Port Said (Egypt)  America‟s allies (Britain and France) went behind America‟s backs and made this plan without even consulting with America  Eisenhower is furious  Return of European Imperialism in the Middle East  Discredit the West in the eyes of the Middle East  USA would rather have the Middle East in their favor than be allies of Britain and France o USA tells Britain and France to leave Egypt immediately or else there would be severe consequences o USA threatens dropping missiles on Britain and France if they did not leave o Israel is also threatened and leaves Egypt as well o British Prime Minister Anthony Eden resigns in 1957  Two sides  Not imperialist enough  Hatching the secret plan against Egypt – it was not democratic o Nasser is undisputedly the leader of the Arab world  Overwhelmingly popular after Britain and France leave the country  „Nasser defended Egypt against both the British and the French‟ o In reality, did not do much, mostly USA intervention October 28, 2013 Revolution in Iran November 4, 1979 - In Tehran, the capital of Iran - Iranian students jumped the fence of the USA embassy - Took more than 70 Americans hostage for over 440 days - The hostages were the singular focus of America‟s attention for a large portion of the time o Remembrance in the United States and anger towards Iranians for this outrage o „Deport all Iranians‟  Very similar feelings towards Japanese Americans after Pearl Harbor bombing by the Japanese Persia = Iran - Persian Empire = Iranian Empire - Major resource of oil - In 1902, the king (Shah) of Iran signed all of his oil to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (1902), a British oil company. o This is the foundation of BP (British Petroleum) Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi - Inexperienced, does not know how to put down revolutionary fervor throughout Iran - There is a revolution where Iranians declare that they will no longer be ruled by a Shah o Democratic Rule of a Prime Minister Muhammad Mossadeq - Passes a law saying that the oil will no longer be given to the British - The Iranian people‟s oil - British boycott Iranian oil o Sends Iranian economy into a tailspin o United States cannot allow Iran to run on its own  USA is the great booming country after WW2 and it is fueled by oil  „If we don‟t take control of Iran, who is going to?‟  The USSR!  USA „needs to get to Iran first‟ „Operation Ajax‟ (1953) - Stage a coup in Iran to get rid of Mossadeq - Americans hire burly Iranians to cause chaos in the streets o Chant anti-Mossadeq chants, fight in the streets, etc. - Very successful o Mossadeq is captured and put under house arrest until his death Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi - Back in power following American-staged coup - Gives oil to the United States o Eisenhower up to Jimmy Carter  Flow tens of millions of dollars to the Shah o The Shah makes the strongest military in the Middle East  Buys weapons and planes from the United States  “U.S. President Jimmy Carter and the Shah” - Victims of SAVAK o SAVAK = police force of the Shah  Tortured political opponents, killed any who opposed the Shah o Shah is in charge of a non-Democratic regime - “Persepolis” (1971) o A week-long party meant to be the best, largest party the world has ever seen o Many of the world‟s wealthiest people flew into Iran into Persepolis for the party o The party cost $200 million dollars during a time when the average Iranian only made $250 dollars per year Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini - “Ayatollah” = Spiritual Leader of Iran o Speaks on behalf of the Muslims of Iran - Disapproves of the Shah‟s brutality - Persepolis is the devil‟s festival o This is wrong, this is evil. o Money is being wasted while many Iranians suffer The White Revolution - An attempt to modernize and westernize Iran - Shah seizes land to make new modern infrastructure such as hospitals, new bridges, etc. - Shah promotes women‟s rights o Women get the right to vote  Local elections, given political power  Women are allowed to run in elections  Women have more freedom o Shah makes the age of marriage for women from 9 to 15 - Ayatollah is against everything the Shah does o Sees Iran as becoming too Western and wants a traditional Islamic Iran o Harsh critic of the Shah  Exiles the Ayatollah  Despite the Shah being Muslim, runs a very secular government not run on Islamic beliefs Exiled Ayatollah‟s Words Broadcast in Tehran - The Ayatollah begins to call the United States the great satan, the greatest evil in the world - The resentment against the Shah was rising o Shah brutally suppressed opposition o Increased demonstrations  Becomes so large that eventually, the Shah flees from Iran and never comes back. Settles in Mexico o Ayatollah returns back to Iran triumphantly and institutes Theocracy  6 million people come to see him return to Iran  A symbol of liberation  Should the monarchy be replaced by an Islamic government?  Pro-western monarchy was decadent, wasteful, coercive  Almost everyone voted yes (98% of the people) - Islamic leaders rule the nation o People must live under the religious leaders‟ interpretation of Islamic laws and beliefs  No alcohol, dawning of the veil (cover the women‟s face), etc.  Becomes a conservative Islamic theocracy October 30, 2013 Iran under the Ayatollah - Very conservative - Women lost their jobs as doctors/lawyers/etc. o Women cannot go to college - The USA made the Ayatollah o Operation Ajax and support for the brutal Shah essentially leads to the creation of the Ayatollah and the autocratic theocracy - Shah announces he has cancer that is only treated in a hospital in New York at this time o The President of the USA allows him to get treatment o The Ayatollah orders the USA to return the Shah to put him on trial and inevitably execute him. November 4, 1979 - Iranian students protested around the U.S. Embassy until this day when they took many Americans hostage and razed the U.S. Embassy - The idea: We will free the hostages when the U.S. returns the Shah to Iran o Trade the 70 hostages for 1 person, the Shah o This must not happen in the policies of internationalism  Just because you are discontent with a nation does not mean you have the right to destroy international relations and attack the embassies o Iranians released the African-American students, the females, and the sick hostages because of their condition  Black = minority, Females = special in Islamic tradition, Sick = sickness, needs help  There are still 52 hostages in Iran United States - Operation Eagle Claw (April 1980) o Total failure ; “Debacle in the Desert” o Helicopters in the desert  One helicopter malfunctioned, not enough marines or transportation necessary to rescue the hostages  Another helicopter was hit by a sandstorm and destroyed the other helicopter, killing a total of 8 marines.  Shows the possible impotence of the United States during this time - The Algiers Accords (1981) o Iranian
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