POLI 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Meiji Restoration, Democratic Capitalism, Authoritarianism

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8 Feb 2017
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February 8, 2017
Notes
Developmental State
In between democratic capitalism and communist
centralization
Three main features
Long-term coordinated planning
Chooses specific sectors/companies that should be
developed and supported
Communism also did this, except in
communism the state owns the country
Regulation and bureaucracy
Done to structure the economy
Once the government has its long term plans, then
it feels that it’s in the best interest of the
country to give them a lot of laws, privileges,
tax breaks, direct investment, to make sure
they’re successful
Different from liberal capitalism because
in liberal capitalism, fluctuation of
market determines what businesses are
successful
US does this with alternative energy
Economic development over political reform
Emphasis on more governmental stability
Can be with dictators or democratic - with one
party always seeming to win
Japan
Classic developmental state
Late modernization - 19th century
Throughout 19th century, still a feudal, agricultural
society
Weak emperor, strong Tokugawa aristocrats
Power held by aristocrats versus a strong monarch
Controlled military force (Samurai)
Got all of their legitimacy from the
emperor
Emperor didn’t have much influence over day to
day governments
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Emperor claimed religious authority and was
thought to be descended from God
Could influence people through religious
affairs
Aristocrats not threatened by urban capitalists
Closed to outsiders from 1600s to 1850s
Aristocrats way of controlling the population
(wanted to limit outside influences that would
limit social order)
Allowed the Dutch to trade on one small island,
and that was it
Dutch were seen as more commercial and not
influenced by religion like other Europeans
Japan was peaceful during this time and the
government was very stable
Could spent money on population
Education levels rose, artistic period
Not a lot of political or economic innovation
Aristocrats only concerned with stability
Not as militarily developed because they weren’t
engaged in many wars
When Western people arrived, easy to defeat
Japan
50s → things change
1853: black ships
Matthew Perry arrived in Japan and forced Japan
to accept American trade and offer a port
Humiliating to Japanese aristocrats
1868: Meiji Restoration
Meiji: Enlightened
Wanted a new, enlightened Japan but also wanted
to restore something
Wanted to unify country
Forced people to believe in common Japanese
identity
Mandatory schooling and military
participation
Thought this would make them more
competitive with the West and thought it
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