November 11.docx

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Environmental Studies
EVS 205
James Rotenberg

November 11, 2013 Pollutant Sources • Sources of Air Pollutants o Major source: Industrial Plants  Burn coal or oil for energy and emit smoke o Typical coal-burning industrial boiler emits 2 kg of sulfur dioxide + 1 kg of nitrogen oxides per every kilowatt-hour of energy generated. • Which industries generate air pollutants? o Oil refineries o Iron and steel foundries o Cement plants o Wood and paper mills o Food-processing facilities o Textile mills o Chemical-processing o Printing and publishing Pollutant Types • Primary Pollutants o Are emitted directly into the atmosphere (listed above) • Secondary Pollutants o Produced from chemical reactions in the atmosphere from primary pollutants o Not directly emitted, but generated over time. • More Types o Gas pollutants (vapor) o Particular pollutants (aerosols, soot) o Can be primary or Secondary o Secondary Particulate Pollutants  Primary Gaseous Pollutants can react to form when condense into haze of fine aerosol particles (ex: sulfur dioxide is oxidized into sulfuric acid which can then form acidic aerosol) • Fugitive Emissions (check EPA site) o “Leaking sources of pollution” o Leaking from:  Industrial facilities  Dust from farm machinery  Soot from city buses Aerosols • Small particles suspended in atmosphere • Primary Aerosols (dust, smoke, ect.) • Secondary Aerosols (smog and sulfate aerosols from factories) o Sulfur gas→ sulfuric aci→ sulfate aerosols Pollution Transport November 11, 2013 • Convection: the vertical motion driven by buoyancy • Advection: horizontal motion of the atmosphere o Responsible for long-range transport of pollutants downwind from sources o Adjective winds – prevailing winds • Advection effects on Pollutants o Moves pollutants from their source o Upwind v. Downwind from pollutant source (similar to Upstream- Downstream)  Downwind = higher concentrations; Upwind = none • Sources and Receptors o Pollutant sources can be miles away from where advective winds transport material o Receptor site: location where pollution ends up (ex: LA, Grand Canyon) o How do we trace non-point pollutant sources?  Chemical “fingerprint” • Temperature Inversions o The layer of atmosphere in which temperature is increasing with height.
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