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Lecture 4

GEOG 151 Lecture 4: Chapter 4 Lecture
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3 Pages
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Department
Geography and Geographic Information Science
Course Code
GEOG 151
Professor
Enru Wang

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9/22/2016-9/27/2016
Nature as a Concept
Nature is a social creation as much as it is the physical universe that includes human beings
Society is the sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by
human beings across place and time
Two-way relationship: society shapes people’s understandings and uses of nature and nature
shapes society
varies from place to place among social groups and change over time
the relationship is usually mediated through technology
Technology is:
physical objects or artifacts
activities or processes
knowledge or know-how
Impact—> I=PAT
Population
Affluence
Technology
Cultural Ecology- the study of how human society adapted to environmental challenges
(such as aridity and steep slopes through technologies such as irrigation and terracing) and
the organization of people to construct and maintain these systems
Rice terraces in China and SE Asia
Political Ecology- studies humans in their environment through relationships of patterns of
resource use to political and economic forces
Hurricane Katrina
Haiti earthquake
U.S. Environmental Attitudes and Philosophies
Judeo-Christian tradition: humans superior to nature
Environmental philosophies popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries
Henry David Thoreau
Walden; often credited as the originator of US ecological philosophy
ideas embraced European notions of romanticism
Ralph Waldo Emerson
transcendentalism: encourage people to attempt rise above nature and the limitations of the
body to the point where spirit dominates the flesh, where a mystical and spiritual life
replaces a primitive and savage one
George Perkins Marsh
Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action in 1864
Glifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt
John Muir
founder of Sierra club (prominent American preservation organization)
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring (1962)
Contemporary Environmental Philosophies
environmental ethics
prescribe moral principles as guidance for our treatment of nature
ecofeminism
patriarchy is at the center of our present environmental malaise
deep ecology
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Description
92220169272016 Nature as a Concept Nature is a social creation as much as it is the physical universe that includes human beings Society is the sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across place and time Twoway relationship: society shapes peoples understandings and uses of nature and nature shapes society varies from place to place among social groups and change over time the relationship is usually mediated through technology Technology is: physical objects or artifacts activities or processes knowledge or knowhow Impact> I=PAT Population Afuence Technology Cultural Ecology the study of how human society adapted to environmental challenges (such as aridity and steep slopes through technologies such as irrigation and terracing) and the organization of people to construct and maintain these systems Rice terraces in China and SE Asia Political Ecology studies humans in their environment through relationships of patterns of resource
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