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Lecture 2

GEOG 151 Lecture 2: Chapter 2 Lecture

4 Pages

Geography and Geographic Information Science
Course Code
GEOG 151
Enru Wang

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find more resources at 9/6/2016 The Premodern World: Hearth Areas • Hearth areas (of the first Agri. Revolution) • transition to agri-based mini systems • more extensive and more stable began in the Proto-Neolithic period (9000-7000 B.C.E) • • breakthroughs: slash-and-burn; domestication of cattle and sheep • Hearth areas — where are they • Middle East (“Fertile Crescent”) • South Asia • China Americas • • Hearth areas: geographic settings where new practices have developed and from which they have subsequently spread • Implications • higher population densities • change in social organization specialization • • trade Early Empires • World empire • group of mini systems common political system • • Colonization • the physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state; an indirect consequence of the operation of law of diminishing returns • Urbanization • towns and cities became essential as centers of administration, military garrisons, and as theological centers for ruling classes Premodern World Geography • Framework of human geographies • harsher environments in continental interiors maintained minisystems • dry belt of steppes and desert margins principal area of sedentary agriculture • • trade routes • The silk road: the dominant centers of global civilization were eChina, northern India, • Centers of capitalism • Importance of port cities • hinterlands World Systems • The European age of discovery and expansion • the modern world system (an interdependent system of countries linked by political and economic competition) has its origin in parts of 15th century Europe • 16th century, new techniques of shipbuilding and navigation Late 18th century, Australia and New Zealand discovered (other “external areas”) • • motivating factors of European overseas expansion find more resources at find more resources at 9/6/2016 • enabling factors: shipbuilding, navigation, and gunnery • colonial powers: get gold, silver, and other resources/products; further improvement in technology • colonies: dependence • External areas • Trade and merchant capitalism • plantations • import substitution • Technological improvements and limits Industrialization in Europe • Diffusion • began in England, spread through Europe and globally • Three distinctive waves • 1790-1850: based on initial cluster of industrial technologies (steam engines, cotton textiles, and ironworking); very localized • 1858-1870: diffusion to most of the rest of Britain and to parts of NW Europe, particularly the coalfields of northern France, Belgium, and Germany (steel, machine tools, railroads, steamships) 1870-1914: spread to southern and eastern Europe • Core and Periphery • Structured relationship • core, semi peripheral, peripheral • Imperialism and colonialism Leadership cycles • • Portugal (most of 16th century) • Netherlands (first 3 quarters of the 17th century) • Great Britain (early 18th century — early 20th century) • The US (from the 1950s) • Hegemony Organizing the Periphery: The International Division of Labor • With the momentum of IR in the second half of the 19th century, industrial core nations began to penetrate the world’s temperate grassland zones and expand their colonies (in tropical areas) • International division of labor • the fundamental logic behind all colonization was economic • need for extended arena of trade • need for an arena supplying foodstuffs and materials in return for u industrial goods of the core • the outcome was an international division of labor • where an established demand existed in the industrial core • where colonies had a comparative advantage in specializations that
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