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PSYC 270 (1)
Lecture 1

PSYC 270 Lecture 1: Chapter2

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University of North Dakota
PSYC 270
Rachel Kramer

find more resources at Chapter 2: Theories and Treatment of Abnormality 1. Three General Approaches to understanding psychological disorders a. Sociocultural- views disorders as the result of environmental conditions and cultural norms b. Biological- views disorders as the result of abnormal genes or neurobiological dysfunction i. Used to view disorders as either absent or present ii. Now there is a continuum perspective on abnormality c. Psychological- views disorders as result of thinking processes, personality styles, and conditioning i. Also moving towards continuum approach 1. The damage Gage suffered caused of his brain to not function properly 2. Three causes of abnormality on which biological approaches often focus; these all can influence one another a. Brain dysfunction- one of three causes of abnormality on which biological approaches often focus i. People like Gage ▯hose ▯rai▯s’ do ▯ot fu▯▯tio▯ properl▯ ofte▯ sho▯ pro▯le▯s i▯ psychological functioning ii. 3 Main Regions of the Brain 1. Hindbrain a. Includes all structures located in the hind (posterior) of the brain b. Closest to the spinal cord c. Crucial for basic life functions d. Contains medulla, which helps control breathing and reflexes e. Pons- important for attentiveness and the timing of sleep f. Reticular Formation- a network of neurons that control arousal and attention to stimuli g. Cerebellum- concerned primarily with the coordination of movement 2. Midbrain a. Located in the middle of the brain b. Contains superior colliculus and inferior colliculus, which relay sensory info and control movement c. Contains substantia nigra- crucial part of pathway that regulates responses to reward 3. Forebrain a. Contains these structures i. Thalamus- directs incoming info from sense receptors ii. Hypothalamus- small structure just below the thalamus that regulates eating, drinking, and sexual behavior find more resources at find more resources at iii. Cerebral Cortex- the area of the brain that was da▯aged i▯ Phi▯eas Gage’s a▯▯ide▯t iv. Limbic system- a set of structures that regulate many instinctive behaviors, such as reactions to stressful events and eating and sexual behavior 1. Amygdala- a structure of the limbic system that is critical in emotions such as fear 2. Hippocampus- a part of the limbic system that plays a role in memory iii. Can result from injury, such as car accident, and from diseases that cause brain deterioration b. Biochemical Imbalances i. Contains neurotransmitters and hormones 1. Neurotransmitters- biochemicals that act as messengers carrying impulses from one neuron, or nerve cell, to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system a. Each neuron has a cell body and dendrites (short branches off the cell body) i. Dendrites and cell body receive impulses ii. Impulse travels down the slender AXON iii. The impulse reaches the small swellings at the end of the axon, called SYNAPTIC TERMINALS iv. Impulse then stimulates release of neurotransmitters v. Synaptic terminals do not actually touch adjacent neurons, this slight gap is called the synaptic gap or synapse vi. The neurotransmitter is released into the synapse and then binds to special receptors b. The amount of neurotransmitter can be affected by two processes i. Process of reuptake- occurs when initial neuron releasing the transmitter into the synapse reabsorbs the transmitter ii. Degradation- occurs when receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the transmitter into other biochemicals; also occurs when releasing neuron provides an enzyme iii. Can also be affected by the number or sensitivity of receptors c. Types of Neurotransmitters find more resources at find more resources at i. Serotonin- travels through many areas of the brain; plays role in emotional well-being and dysfunctional behaviors ii. Dopamine- has to do with experience of reinforcements or rewards; affected by substances; important in muscle systems iii. Norepinephrine- produced mainly by neurons in brain stem; too much causes slowing psychological process, too little causes depression iv. Gama- Aminobutryic Acid (GABA)- inhibits actions of other neurotransmitters ii. The Endocrine System 1. Function- system of glands that produce chemicals, called hormones, which are released directly into the blood a. Hormone- carries messages throughout the body, potentially affe▯ti▯g a perso▯’s ▯ood, le▯el of e▯erg▯, a▯d rea▯tio▯ to stress 2. Major Gland of this system includes the Pituitary gland a. AKA Master Gland, it produces the largest number of different hormones and controls the secretion of other endocrine glands; lies just below the hypothalamus b. Relationship between pituitary and hypothalamus shows interactions between endocrine and central nervous systems 3. Mood Disorders and Suicide a. Some theories say that these disorders result from i. Dysregulation (malfunctioning) of a system called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (OR HPA AXIS) 1. People with dysregulated HPA axis may have abnormal physiological reactions to stress that makes it more difficult for them to cope with stress, resulting in symptoms of anxiety and depression c. Genetic Abnormalities i. Behavioral genetics- the study of genetics of personality and abnormality are concerned with 2 inquiries 1. To what extent are behaviors inherited 2. What are the processes by which genes affect behavior ii. Polygenic- multi-gene process that takes multiple genetic abnormalities coming together in one individual to create a specific disorder 1. Examples include diabetes, epilepsy, cleft palate, heart disease 3. Treatments a. Drug Therapies find more resources at find more resources at i. Most of the treatments biologically for abnormality are drug treatments, thought to relieve psychological symptoms by improving the functioning of neurotransmitter systems 1. Antipsychotic Drugs- help reduce symptoms of psychosis, which include hallucinations and delusions 2. Antidepressant Drugs- reduce symptoms of depression 3. Particular Drugs a. Lithium- a metallic element present in the sea, that is used as a mood stabilizer, mostly for bipolar disorder b. Anticonvulsants- used in treatment of mania b. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Brain Stimulation Techniques i. ECT- introduced in early twentieth century as treatment for schizophrenia 1. Also found effective for treating depression but proven to not aid in the treatment of schizophrenia c. Psychosurgery i. Moniz introduced a procedure in 1935 that involved the frontal lobes of the brain being severed from lower centers of the brain in people with psychosis ii. Eventually developed into Prefrontal Lobotomy 1. Moniz won Nobel Prize, but this procedure was labeled as cruel and ineffective to treat psychosis 2. Side affects included inability to control impulses or inability to initiate activity, extreme listlessness and loss of emotions, seizures, and sometimes even death 3. B▯ ▯95▯’s, use of ps▯▯hosurger▯ de▯li▯ed dra▯ati▯all▯ 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES a. Focus of much research in psychopathology mostly consists of behavior and cognitive approaches i. Behavioral Approaches 1. Focus on the influence of reinforcements and punishments in producing behavior 2. Two core principles are classical conditioning and operant conditioning, and learning can also occur a. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) i. Pavlov paired a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally leads to a certain response and was able to elicit response ii. Types of Stimulus 1. Undconditioned- stimulus that naturally produces a response a. Response- the response created by the unconditioned stimulis 2. Conditioned- previously neutral stimulus find more resources at find more resources at a. Response- response elicited by conditioned stimulus iii. Examples 1. Pavlov with dog conditioning a. Conditioned stimulus- Pavlov b. Conditioned response- dog salivating in response to Pavlov b. Operant Conditioning (E.L. Thorndike) i. Definition- the shaping of behaviors by providing rewards for desired behaviors and providing punishments for undesired behaviors ii. The idea that behaviors followed by a reward are strengthened and behaviors followed by punishment are weakened iii. Reinforcement Schedule 1. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule- consistent response of a behavior or reward every time behavior is emitted 2. Partial reinforcement Schedule- reward or p
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