ENC1143 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Congee, The Great Destroyer, House Of Bourbon

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16 Oct 2016
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18th Century Enlightenment
- Elighteet = aakeed = to e ifused ith light he ou ope our ees after
sleeping, you see light, hence awakened).
- Prelude: War of the Spanish Succession
o The last Hapsburg Spanish monarch dies (Carlos II in 1800) -> everyone
participated in the power grab for Spain (because it had tons of money from
exploiting the New World, dominating silver mines, handling tons of sugar fields,
and playing a role in the African slave trade).
o The first person who wanted to jump in o it L XIV. -> Britain got freaked out.
Britai o istead of Eglad eause all of Quee Ae’s  aka the last
Stuart ) children died in miscarriages -> no heir; added pressure of
W.o.S.S. caused England to be called Britain at the time??
o France won the Spanish throne but had to give England some New World stuff;
Bourbon Dynasty: dying because chicken pox ->all dying except Louis XIV and L XV
- Louis XV
o Not important at all and definitely not absolutist (complete opposite from L XIV)
o Apres oi le deluge = after e, the flood refereed the flood of
Enlightenment ideas and how it would affect future leaders (for example: L XVI got
executed (((-: )
- Voltaire
o Known for his wit
o 1st of Philosophes
They were concerned with popularizing provocative ideas/notions
Not about creating, but spreading ideas + making them more accessible.
o Wrote Candide
Altered content and form; all about crushing infamy.
Content: satirical (more accessible)
Form: novella
Purpose: criticized overly optimistic perspectives; addressed how extreme
optimism leads to a culture of apathy
Ex: His crush gets gang raped and killed, and he just passes it off as
fate ad soethig oud to happe.
Voltaire brought up that people particularly guilty of this when
they are in the most powerful place because they see all this awful
stuff happening but tell themselves optimistic things at the end of
the day to help themselves sleep at night.
( :
- Hume
o Destroyed philosophy by saying everything humans do or think is irrational.
o Locke: empirical experience = rational!
Hume: everything humans experience are impressions, and ideas come from these
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