ENC1143 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Pseudoscience, New Imperialism, Imperialism

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17 Nov 2016
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Freud
- Recap: Nietzsche and Wittgenstein both invalidated universalism for many reasons:
o Language limits our understanding
In addition, the realities that different languages will naturally be different.
o Life complying with or revolving around one thing (as Universalism states) did not
appear feasible because of all the aspects of life
This proved further that the old branches of philosophy could no longer be
applied ad ee theefoe eaigless to ode soiet.
- So basically those two^ shot down epistemological universalism (epistemology referring to the
philosophical and largely unsupported version of universalism that only offered personal
theories).
- But Feud ae out ith a pshologial uiesalis, that poposed that all people ae
beholden to one tendency or way of thinking no matter where they are from, what language
they speak, etc.
o His pshologial take as diffeet i the a that psholog as sietifiall
supported and also encouraged the gathering of empirical evidence.
- An oversimplified explanation of his findings:
o The supeego the utue pat of a hua is essetiall iilizatio’s alues.
The supe pat efes to thigs that ae liteall eod o outside of humans.
o ID atue osists of ou iologial uges. Basiall hat eolutio has eated ad
programmed within humans to find pleasurable.
o The ego is what negotiates between the superego and id. It is our conscious self that
uses reason.
- Freud believed life is suffeig ot eause eethig suks ut eause thee’s o esape fo
hat oe desies ad hat soiet deads. It’s ipossile to opletel satisf oth,
therefore we can never achieve true happiness.
- He liked to focus on why Modernity made people unhappy.
o Came to the conclusion that the Age of Modernity put people in an ever-changing hyper
chamber that never allowed people to get a good-footing. The ever-changing times
destailized a sese of hat a peso’s supeego as. Civilization was changing so
apidl ad the people ould’t keep up.
WWI
- Had a huge impact on Western people, especially in France. The Great War set the tones and in
motion the events that are present today.
- Its origins lie in the eugenic (pseudoscientific racism that used Dai’s studies to justif the
diffeet ategoizatio of lesse ethiities. Ofteties, the lesse ee osideed diffeet
species, fundamentally different animals.)
o This propelled New Imperialism.
- The basic philosophy of Old Imperialism involved fighting other nations for their resources and
inhabiting it. AKA colonization.
- The post-1800 New Imperialism involved fighting nations for the same reason, but ultimately
letting the nation retain its existing political power.
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