BIOS 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Botulism, Clostridium, Saturated Fat

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8 Feb 2017
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Disease of the Day - Botulism Lecture 7 (1/25/17)
Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, Gram-positive, anaerobic rod-shaped
bacterium.
Spore is often larger in diameter than the cell, so the cell swells.
3 Ways to Get It
1. Wounds
2. An infant getting it in the GI tract
a. They have an incomplete microbial GI tract, and a less acidic stomach.
i. This makes them much more susceptible
b. It can travel through honey, so this is why they say no to feed infants honey.
i. Most botulinum are food borne
3. Canning not being properly heated
a. Need to heat canning (homemade) to 120 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes to kill
the spores.
i. If spores survive, they grow in the food, and germinate, producing a toxic,
vegetative cell.
1. Proteins have to fold properly to be toxic, and unfolding can occur
in high temperatures.
b. If foods are cooked properly, they should have inactivated exotoxins
c. Botulism is the most important bacteria for the food industry to kill
Food Processing
Goal is to kill spores
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