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Lecture 14

LIFE 121 Lecture 14: Exam 2: Eukaryotes

7 Pages
80 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFE 121
Professor
Roberto Cortinas
Lecture
14

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Eukaryotes
Organelles
o membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions
Only present in eukaryotic cells
o Golgi apparatus
Synthesis and secretion of cell products
o Endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane synthesis, metabolism
o Mitochondrion
Cellular respiration, ATP production
o Chloroplast
Photosynthetic organelle
Endosymbiont Theory
o Endosymbiont
Cell that lives within another cell
o Engulfed cell formed mutualism
o Merged into a single organism
o In eukaryotes, energy metabolism is largely the product of
endosymbiosis
Aerobic respiration: alpha-protobacterium > mitochondria
Oxygenic photosynthesis: cyanobacterium > chloroplast
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic theory
o Biochemistry
Inner membranes have enzymes and transport systems
homologous to prokaryote membranes
o Membranes
Organelles bounded by single membrane
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have two membranes
o Circular DNA and ribosomes
o Grow and independently divide via binary fission within cell
o Molecular phylogeny
alpha-protobacterium > mitochondria
Cyanobacterium > chloroplast
All eukaryotes have mitochondria or modified versions
All mitochondria descended from a sing ancestor, as did plastids
Protists
o Small, mostly unicellular eukaryotes
o Used to be grouped in the Kingdom Protista
Molecular evidence demonstrates it is a polyphyletic group
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Some are more closely related to plants, other to animals and
fungi
o Functional diversity
Reproduction
asexual and sexual reproduction
o Functional diversity
Nutrition
Photoautotrophs, heterotrophs
Mixotrophs can switch between photo- and heterotrophy
Lineages of photosynthetic protists
o Plastid-bearing lineage gave rise to two photosynthetic lineages
Algae
o Secondary endosymbiosis
Some red and green algae, in turn, became endosymbionts
themselves
Multicellularity
o Colony
A spectrum from unicellular to multicellular
Collection of individual cells that are connected but (usually)show
little or not differentiation
Simple filaments, balls, or cell sheets
Cells attached by shared cell walls or held together by proteins
that physically connect adjacent cells
Cells may or may not be able to survive independently
Simple colony
Cells divide and remain attached
Genius
Complex colony
Specialized individual cells living together
Cells cannot survive independently
o Multicellular
Organisms with differentiated and specialized cells
Cells cannot live independently
Did the transition to multicellularity in green algae require many
new genes?
Volvox has only a few novel genes that account for the
morphological differences with Chlamydomonas
Multicellularity did not require new genes, but may have
resulted from changed in how existing genes are used
Multicellularity in Animals
o Multicellularity arose in several eukaryotic lineages independently
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Description
Eukaryotes Organelles o membraneenclosed structures with specialized functions Only present in eukaryotic cells o Golgi apparatus Synthesis and secretion of cell products o Endoplasmic reticulum Membrane synthesis, metabolism o Mitochondrion Cellular respiration, ATP production o Chloroplast Photosynthetic organelle Endosymbiont Theory o Endosymbiont Cell that lives within another cell o Engulfed cell formed mutualism o Merged into a single organism o In eukaryotes, energy metabolism is largely the product of endosymbiosis Aerobic respiration: alphaprotobacterium > mitochondria Oxygenic photosynthesis: cyanobacterium > chloroplast Evidence for the Endosymbiotic theory o Biochemistry Inner membranes have enzymes and transport systems homologous to prokaryote membranes o Membranes Organelles bounded by single membrane Mitochondria and chloroplasts have two membranes o Circular DNA and ribosomes o Grow and independently divide via binary fission within cell o Molecular phylogeny alphaprotobacterium > mitochondria Cyanobacterium > chloroplast All eukaryotes have mitochondria or modified versions All mitochondria descended from a sing ancestor, as did plastids Protists o Small, mostly unicellular eukaryotes o Used to be grouped in the Kingdom Protista Molecular evidence demonstrates it is a polyphyletic group
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