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Lecture 16

LIFE 121 Lecture 16: Exam 2: Invasion of Land Plants and Fungi

by OneClass2402475 , Spring 2018
5 Pages
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Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFE 121
Professor
Roberto Cortinas
Lecture
16

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Invasion of Land Plants & Fungi
Conquest of Land
o New Opportunities
Unfiltered sunlight
More CO2
Nutrients
Few herbivores and pathogens
o New Challenges
Lack of water
Gravity
Preadaptatio’s of Charophtes
o Adaptations that enabled move to land
Habitat
Shallow freshwater ponds
Sporopollenin
Durable polymer that prevents charophyte zygotes from
drying out
Innovation of Land Plants
o Alternation of generations
Multicellular haploid and diploid organisms
Not present in charophytes though present in some algae
o Multicellular, dependent embryos
Retained within gametophytes
o Walled spores in sporangia
Found in sporophyte (2n)
multicellular organs that produce spores
Sporopollenin present in spores
Protects against harsh conditions
o Apical meristems
Regions of cell division at tips of roots and shoots
Divide otiuousl durig plat’s life
Irease plat’s eposure to resoures
o Waxy cuticle
Covering of wax and other polymers
o Functions
resists drying out
Protects against bacterial infections
Early Lan Plants
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o Fossil evidence indicated that plants were on land at least 470 million
years ago
o Fossilized spores and tissues have been extracted from 450-million year
old rocks
o Large plant structures appeared in the fossil record 425 may
o by 400 may, a diverse assemblage of plants on land
o Unique traits
Specialized tissues for water transport
Stomata
Branched sporophytes
o Lacked true roots and leaves
How did early plants absorb soil nutrients?
Nucleariids
o protists
o Amoeba-like
o Small (~50 um)
o Pilose pseudopods
o Spherical or flattened body
o Soil,freshwater habitats
o Most consume algae or cyanobacteria
o Most closely related to fungi
Fungi
o Large group of organisms
100k described (probably 1.5 million app.)
Found worldwide
Diverse habitats
Marine, freshwater, terrestrial
o Importance
Ecosystem function and health
Agriculture
Food industry
Medicine
Culture
Fungal Characteristics
o Reproduce sexually and asexually
o No chloroplasts
o Cell walls and vacuoles
o Chitin in cell wall
Besides fungi, only arthropods have chitin
o All groups, except the chytrids, have lost posterior flagellum
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Description
Invasion of Land Plants & Fungi Conquest of Land o New Opportunities Unfiltered sunlight More CO2 Nutrients Few herbivores and pathogens o New Challenges Lack of water Gravity Preadaptations of Charophytes o Adaptations that enabled move to land Habitat Shallow freshwater ponds Sporopollenin Durable polymer that prevents charophyte zygotes from drying out Innovation of Land Plants o Alternation of generations Multicellular haploid and diploid organisms Not present in charophytes though present in some algae o Multicellular, dependent embryos Retained within gametophytes o Walled spores in sporangia Found in sporophyte (2n) multicellular organs that produce spores Sporopollenin present in spores Protects against harsh conditions o Apical meristems Regions of cell division at tips of roots and shoots Divide continuously during plants life Increase plants exposure to resources o Waxy cuticle Covering of wax and other polymers o Functions resists drying out Protects against bacterial infections Early Lan Plantso Fossil evidence indicated that plants were on land at least 470 million years ago o Fossilized spores and tissues have been extracted from 450-million year old rocks o Large plant structures appeared in the fossil record 425 may o by 400 may, a diverse assemblage of plants on land o Unique traits Specialized tissues for water transport Stomata Branched sporophytes o Lacked true roots and leaves How did early plants absorb soil nutrients? Nucleariids o protists o Amoeba-like o Small (~50 um) o Pilose pseudopods o Spherical or flattened body o Soil,freshwater habitats o Most
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