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Lecture 16

LIFE 121 Lecture 16: Exam 2: Invasion of Land Plants and Fungi

5 Pages

Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFE 121
Roberto Cortinas

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Invasion of Land Plants & Fungi Conquest of Land o New Opportunities Unfiltered sunlight More CO2 Nutrients Few herbivores and pathogens o New Challenges Lack of water Gravity Preadaptations of Charophytes o Adaptations that enabled move to land Habitat Shallow freshwater ponds Sporopollenin Durable polymer that prevents charophyte zygotes from drying out Innovation of Land Plants o Alternation of generations Multicellular haploid and diploid organisms Not present in charophytes though present in some algae o Multicellular, dependent embryos Retained within gametophytes o Walled spores in sporangia Found in sporophyte (2n) multicellular organs that produce spores Sporopollenin present in spores Protects against harsh conditions o Apical meristems Regions of cell division at tips of roots and shoots Divide continuously during plants life Increase plants exposure to resources o Waxy cuticle Covering of wax and other polymers o Functions resists drying out Protects against bacterial infections Early Lan Plantso Fossil evidence indicated that plants were on land at least 470 million years ago o Fossilized spores and tissues have been extracted from 450-million year old rocks o Large plant structures appeared in the fossil record 425 may o by 400 may, a diverse assemblage of plants on land o Unique traits Specialized tissues for water transport Stomata Branched sporophytes o Lacked true roots and leaves How did early plants absorb soil nutrients? Nucleariids o protists o Amoeba-like o Small (~50 um) o Pilose pseudopods o Spherical or flattened body o Soil,freshwater habitats o Most
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