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Lecture 6

LIFE 121 Lecture 6: Prokaryotes (Day 6)

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Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFE 121
Professor
Glider

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Description
070615 PROKARYOTES I. Prokaryotic Cells: pro = before karyon = kernel A. Prokaryotic cells lack membranebounded organelles such as nuclei, mitochondria, and chloroplasts etc. 1. DNA floats free in cytoplasm B. earliest fossils C. Prokaryotic organisms classified in 2 domains: 1. Domain: Bacteria = true bacteria and cyanobacteria 2. Domain: Arachaea = bacterialike organisms often living in extreme environments (e.g. acid hot springs, high saline) = extremophiles II. Archaea A. differ from the bacteria in cell wall and cell membrane B. Extremophiles 1. Extreme thermophiles: live in hot environments a. Sulfolobus live in sulfur rich volcanic springs up to 90C 2. Extreme halophiles halo=salt; phile= loving a. live in high saline environments 3. methanogens a. use CO2 to oxidize H2 ATP + CH4 (methane) as byproduct b. strict anaerobes c. some species live in anaerobic muds swamps and marshes marsh gas d. some species live in anaerobic guts herbivores (e.g. cattle, termites, humans etc. essential role in nutrition) C. Archaean phylogeny in state of flux as new species discovered III. True Bacteria A. Nutrition: see table 465 1. Photoautotrophs: light energy used to fix CO2 into organic compounds a. Contain bacterial chlorophylls very different structures from chlorophylls of cyanobacteria and plants b. No O2 is produced 2. chemoautotrophs a. energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g.) H2S, NH3, FE+2) +CO2 organic compounds 3. photoheterotrophs: use lights for Energy but must obtain Ci in organic forms (e.g. not as CO2) 4. chemoheterotrophs (heterotrophs) = consume organic compounds a. most species of true bacteria are heterotrophs B. Cellular respiration: production of ATP via the oxidation of chemical compounds 1. obligated aerobes: must have O2 for cellular respiration 2. facultative anaerobes: use O2 if present; can also use anaerobic respiration when low O2 concentrations 3. obligate anaerobes: killed by O2
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