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Lecture 5

LIFE 121 Lecture 5: Phylogeny and Systematics (Day 5)

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Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
LIFE 121
Professor
Glider

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07/03/15
PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS
I. Linnaean Classification System
A. Carlous Linnaeus – 18th Century taxonomist: biologist that identified, named, and classified
species
1. binomial system nomenclature
a. each species assigned 2 part, Latin name
EX/ Leopard Frog
-Rana = genus
-pipiens = specific epithet
Rana pipiens = species
2. grouped species into a hierarchy of categories
a. taxon: the name taxonomic unit at any given level of classification
Hierarchical classification:
 Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
II. Phylogeny and phylogenetics
A. Phylogeny: evolutionary history of groups of organisms
a. Phylon: tribe
b. genesis
1. evidence from fossil record and from morphological and molecular homologies
2. not all similar morphologies are inherited from common ancestor
Convergent evolution: species from different evolution origins may come to resemble one another if live
in similar environments
-natural selection  body structures or whole organs look similar but not due to common
ancestor
-Analogy: similarity due to convergence
(different trees, but come together from same trait)
EX/ convergent evolution of placental and marsupial mammals
**Opposite of convergent evolution is divergent evolution
B. Phylogenetic Trees
1. branching diagrams depict hypotheses about evolution history of organisms
2. hierarchical classification schemes
3. branch point represents divergence 2 lineages from common ancestors
III. Cladograms and Cladistics
A. Cladistics: identification of evolutionary branches (clades) consisting of ancestral species and
all its descendants
1. each clade is monophyletic: taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to
no species in any other taxa
2. cladistics based on concept that evolution proceeds when a new heritable trait develops in
an organism and is passed on to descendents
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Description
070315 PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS I. Linnaean Classification System th A. Carlous Linnaeus 18 Century taxonomist: biologist that identified, named, and classified species 1. binomial system nomenclature a. each species assigned 2 part, Latin name EX Leopard Frog Rana = genus pipiens = specific epithet Rana pipiens = species 2. grouped species into a hierarchy of categories a. taxon: the name taxonomic unit at any given level of classification Hierarchical classification: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species II. Phylogeny and phylogenetics A. Phylogeny: evolutionary history of groups of organisms a. Phylon: tribe b. genesis 1. evidence from fossil record and from morphological and molecular homologies 2. not all similar morphologies are inherited from common ancestor Convergent evolution: species from different evolution origins may come to resemble o
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