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Lecture 4

PHIL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Physicalism, Reductionism


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 101
Professor
Mc Lear
Lecture
4

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Metaphysics
What kinds of things exist?
What is fundamental?
Physicalism
Everything that is or could exist is ultimately physical in nature
Why be a Physicalist?
The Argument from Explanation
1. Our physical theories are highly successful at predicting and controlling our
experience of the world
2. The best explanation of why physical theory is so successful is that it correctly
describes the nature of reality
3. If our physical theories correctly describe the nature of reality then physicalism is
true
4. Therefore, physicalism is true
Causal Closure: every event that has a cause has only a physical cause (or physical
causes)
Alternatives to Physicalism
Dualism: physical things exist but some things that do (or could) exist are not (or are not
ultimately) physical in nature (ex. Minds, souls, God)
Idealism: everything that is or could exist is ultimately mental in nature
Reductionism
Deducing, explaining, or otherwise showing a dependence relation to exist between one
set of properties, facts, or concepts, and other privileged set of properties, facts or
concepts
Reducing Consciousness
Reduce features of conscious experience to matter/energy organized according to
physical laws (reduction base)
oCan we deduce, explain, or otherwise show that conscious experience depends
solely on matter/energy operating under physical laws?
oIf the answer is yes then we have reduced or given a reduction of conscious
experience in terms of physics
The "Hard Problem" of Consciousness: Why do the physical processes that characterize life
result in conscious experience?
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