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Lecture 5

NUTR 120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Hemorrhoid, Lactase, Constipation

Course Code
NUTR 120
Bodo, Mackenzie

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storage form of carbohydrate in plants
-in seeds, roots, and tubers
insulin and glucagon
key hormones that maintain normal blood glucose levels
-effects of insulin:
enables glucose to enter cells
enhances production of fat
glycogen breakdown releasing glucose into the blood
glucose for energy
-cells use oxygen to release energy stored in glucose’s chemical bonds
-carbon dioxide and water are formed in the process
form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown
reducing your intake of refined carbs
sources of refined carbs:
-soft drinks
-most processed foods
suggested subs:
-plain water
-whole grains and nuts (high calories, beware)
-fresh fruits and veggies
-plain yogurt sweetened with fresh fruit, dried fruits
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understanding nutrition labeling: carbs and fiber
-info about total carbs, sugar, and fiber content in a serving of food
are carbs fattening?
it may depend on the type of carbs..
-probably “fattening”:
added sugars
refined starches
high-fructose corn syrup
-healthier choices:
fiber-rich foods (fruits, veggies, unrefined grains)
what is diabetes?
group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat,
and protein metabolism
-type 1 diabetes:
autoimmune disease
beta cells (in the pancreas) stop making insulin
-type 2 diabetes:
most common
insulin (carrier of glucose) resistant cells
can be found in blood glucose measurements, if unusually high
-gestational diabetes:
pregnant women that have never been diabetic can have high blood
glucose during late pregnancy (~24 weeks)
treatment: check glucose regularly, control glucose levels,
specialized diet, scheduled physical exercise and possibly insulin
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