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Lecture 5

NUTR 120 Lecture 5: Carbs

by OneClass1118094 , Fall 2016
5 Pages
69 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 120
Professor
Bodo, Mackenzie
Lecture
5

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starch
storage form of carbohydrate in plants
-in seeds, roots, and tubers
insulin and glucagon
key hormones that maintain normal blood glucose levels
-effects of insulin:
enables glucose to enter cells
enhances production of fat
glycogenolysis
glycogen breakdown releasing glucose into the blood
glucose for energy
-cells use oxygen to release energy stored in glucose’s chemical bonds
-carbon dioxide and water are formed in the process
ketones
form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown
reducing your intake of refined carbs
sources of refined carbs:
-soft drinks
-cookies
-candy
-chips
-most processed foods
suggested subs:
-plain water
-whole grains and nuts (high calories, beware)
-fresh fruits and veggies
-plain yogurt sweetened with fresh fruit, dried fruits
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
understanding nutrition labeling: carbs and fiber
-info about total carbs, sugar, and fiber content in a serving of food
are carbs fattening?
it may depend on the type of carbs..
-probably “fattening”:
added sugars
refined starches
high-fructose corn syrup
-healthier choices:
fiber-rich foods (fruits, veggies, unrefined grains)
what is diabetes?
group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat,
and protein metabolism
-type 1 diabetes:
autoimmune disease
beta cells (in the pancreas) stop making insulin
-type 2 diabetes:
most common
insulin (carrier of glucose) resistant cells
-pre-diabetes:
can be found in blood glucose measurements, if unusually high
-gestational diabetes:
pregnant women that have never been diabetic can have high blood
glucose during late pregnancy (~24 weeks)
treatment: check glucose regularly, control glucose levels,
specialized diet, scheduled physical exercise and possibly insulin
injections
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
starch storage form of carbohydrate in plants - in seeds, roots, and tubers insulin and glucagon key hormones that maintain normal blood glucose levels - effects of insulin: • enables glucose to enter cells • enhances production of fat glycogenolysis glycogen breakdown releasing glucose into the blood glucose for energy - cells use oxygen to release energy stored in glucose’s chemical bonds - carbon dioxide and water are formed in the process ketones form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown reducing your intake of refined carbs sources of refined carbs: - soft drinks - cookies - candy - chips - most processed foods suggested subs: - plain water - whole grains and nuts (high calories, beware) - fresh fruits and veggies - plain yogurt sweetened with fresh fruit, dried fruits understanding nutrition labeling: carbs and fiber - info about total carbs, sugar, and fiber content in a serving of food are carbs fattening? it may depend on the type of carbs.. - probably “fattening”: • added sugars • refined starches • high-fructose corn syrup - healthier choices: • fiber-rich foods (fruits, veggies, unrefined grains) what is diabetes? group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat, and protein metabolism - type 1 diabetes: • autoimmune disease • beta cells (in the pancreas) stop making insulin - type 2 diabetes: • most common • insulin (carrier of glucose) resistant cells - pre-diabetes: • can be found in blood glucose measurements, if unusually high - gestational diabetes: pregnant women that have never been diabetic can have high blood • glucose during late pregnancy (~24 weeks) • treatment: check glucose regularly, control glucose levels, specialized diet, scheduled physical exercise and possibly insulin injections controlling diabetes 1. maintenance of normal or near normal blood glucose levels
 - daily self testing of blood glucose
 - periodic measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin 2. maintain healthy body weight 3. follow special diet 4. obtain regular physical activity (makes cells less insulin resistant) can diabetes be prevented? - type 1 cannot be prevented - risk for developing type 2 can be redu
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